(1/293) Comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and DNA sequence analysis of single cells.

A PCR strategy is described for global amplification of DNA from a single eukaryotic cell that enables the comprehensive analysis of the whole genome. By comparative genomic hybridization, not only gross DNA copy number variations, such as monosomic X and trisomic 21 in single male cells and cells from Down's syndrome patients, respectively, but multiple deletions and amplifications characteristic for human tumor cells are reliably retrieved. As a model of heterogeneous cell populations exposed to selective pressure, we have studied single micrometastatic cells isolated from bone marrow of cancer patients. The observed congruent pattern of comparative genomic hybridization data, loss of heterozygosity, and mutations as detected by sequencing attests to the technique's fidelity and demonstrates its usefulness for assessing clonal evolution of genetic variants in complex populations.  (+info)

(2/293) Unknown primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: molecular identification of the site of origin.

BACKGROUND: Unknown primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) presents as a cervical lymph node metastasis without identification of the primary tumor, despite thorough diagnostic work-up that includes physical examination, computed tomography, esophagoscopy, laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and multiple surveillance biopsies. We investigated whether the site of origin of the primary tumor could be localized in the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa by detection of genetic alterations identical to those found in metastatic lesions. METHODS: Microsatellite analysis was performed on metastatic tumors obtained from 18 patients with unknown primary HNSCC. Histologically benign surveillance biopsy specimens were also analyzed. Patients were followed up to 13 years with continuing surveillance for primary mucosal tumors. Most patients were treated with neck dissection followed by radiation therapy to the affected neck and ipsilateral Waldeyer's ring. RESULTS: In 10 (55%) of the 18 patients, at least one histopathologically benign mucosal biopsy specimen from defined anatomic sites (i.e., most likely sites for an occult primary tumor) demonstrated a pattern of genetic alterations identical to that present in cervical lymph node metastases. One patient harboring genetic alterations in the base of the tongue and two patients harboring genetic alterations in a tonsillar fossa subsequently developed HNSCC in the identical or adjacent mucosal region; all three of the primary head and neck mucosal tumors that eventually appeared between 1 and 13 years later in these patients had genetic changes identical to those in the benign mucosal biopsy specimens and in the metastatic lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that histopathologically benign mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract may harbor foci of clonal, preneoplastic cells that are genetically related to metastatic HNSCC and that such mucosal sites are the sites of origin of unknown primary HNSCC. Microsatellite analysis may represent a clinically useful tool for determining such sites.  (+info)

(3/293) Mammaglobin expression in primary, metastatic, and occult breast cancer.

The mammaglobin gene encodes a novel, breast cancer-associated glycoprotein. In this study, we have evaluated the frequency with which mammaglobin expression can be detected in primary and metastatic breast tumors and in breast tumor cells present in the peripheral circulation. Of 100 primary human breast tumors examined, 81 were strongly immunopositive for mammaglobin protein. Staining was independent of tumor grade and histological type. Ten of 11 lymph nodes from patients with metastatic breast cancer contained detectable mammaglobin mRNA, whereas mammaglobin expression in uninvolved lymph nodes was undetectable. Using a nested reverse transcription-PCR assay, mammaglobin mRNA was also detected in 9 of 15 products (60%) used for autologous stem cell transplant. These results suggest that larger clinical studies are warranted to investigate the full clinical utility of mammaglobin as a tool for breast cancer patient management.  (+info)

(4/293) Chemotherapy in carcinomas of unknown primary site: a high-dose intensity policy.

BACKGROUND: Unknown primary tumors are highly malignant diseases which portend a dire prognosis. We designed a prospective high dose-intensity policy with the aim of improving the results obtained with conventional chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy regimens were determined according to clinical features. In patients younger than 61 years with an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or poorly differentiated carcinoma, and no evidence of brain or bone marrow involvement (group A), the treatment plan included four sequential high-dose courses with hematopoietic progenitor cell and growth factor support. Peripheral blood progenitor cells were collected by apheresis as the leukocyte counts recovered from the nadir induced by the first cycle of chemotherapy (doxorubicin 75 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 6000 mg/m2). Patients then received two cycles of etoposide (800 mg/m2) and carboplatin (900 mg/m2) separated by one cycle of doxorubicin (75 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (3000 mg/m2). G-CSF (5 micrograms/kg/d) was given until engraftment. It was planned that cycles would be delivered every three weeks. The remaining patients (group B) received alternative cycles of AC (doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m2) and EP (etoposide 300 mg/m2, cisplatin 100 mg/m2). Cycles were given at two-week intervals with GM-CSF support (5 micrograms/kg/d) from day 4 to day 10. Patients without measurable lesions were included, since the major endpoint was survival. RESULTS: Sixty patients entered the study. Twenty patients were assigned to group A and 40 patients to group B. In group A, 5 of 12 patients with measurable lesions (42%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 22%-62%) achieved major responses to chemotherapy, including one complete response. The duration of the overall median survival was 11 months. In group B, a major response was observed in 12 (39%; 95% CI: 28%-50%) of 31 patients with measurable lesions, including three complete responses. The overall median survival was 8 months. Hematological toxicities were noteworthy in both groups. Two toxic deaths occurred in group B. CONCLUSION: Using these doses and schedules of chemotherapy, a high-dose intensity policy does not appear to improve the outcome of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. Alternative studies dealing with new drugs are required.  (+info)

(5/293) Chylothorax, chylopericardium and lymphoedema--the presenting features of signet-ring cell carcinoma.

This report describes a patient with chylous pleural and pericardial effusions in conjunction with severe lymphoedema resembling elephantiasis. The chylous effusions and generalized lymphoedema were associated with a signet-ring cell carcinoma.  (+info)

(6/293) Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in which the pathohistological diagnosis was identical to that of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

A 65-year-old man developed severe lumbago and a loss of appetite two months before presentation. A computerized tomograph at admission revealed soft tissue masses destroying the Th12, L4 and L5 vertebral bones. We diagnosed the lesions to be metastatic bone tumors, but the primary focus could not be determined. Just after the irradiation treatment, abnormal lymphocytes were detected in the peripheral blood cells. Under the suspicion of adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma (ATL), we thus performed a lymph node biopsy. The specimens were histologically composed of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The lymphoma cells demonstrated a biclonal integration of HTLV-1 proviral DNA. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient has demonstrated a partial and favorable remission from ATL.  (+info)

(7/293) Classification and regression tree analysis of 1000 consecutive patients with unknown primary carcinoma.

The clinical features and survival times of patients with unknown primary carcinoma (UPC) are heterogeneous. Therefore, the goals of this study were to apply a novel analytical method to UPC patients to: (a) identify novel prognostic factors; (b) explore the interactions between clinical variables and their impact on survival; and (c) illustrate explicitly how the covariates interact. The 1000 patients analyzed were referred to the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from January 1, 1987 through November 30, 1994. Clinical data from these patients were entered into a computerized database for storage, retrieval, and analysis. Multivariate analyses of survival were performed using recursive partitioning referred to as classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. The median survival for all 1000 consecutive UPC patients was 11 months. CART was performed with an initial split on liver involvement, and 10 terminal subgroups were formed. Median survival of the 10 subgroups ranged from 40 months (95% confidence interval, 22-66 months) for UPC patients with one or two metastatic organ sites, with nonadenocarcinoma histology, and without liver, bone, adrenal, or pleural metastases to 5 months (95% confidence interval, 4-7 months) in UPC patients with liver metastases, tumor histologies other than neuroendocrine carcinoma, age >61.5 years, and a small subgroup of patients with adrenal metastases. Two additional trees were also explored. These analyses demonstrated that important prognostic variables were consistently applied by the CART program and effectively segregated patients into groups with similar clinical features and survival. CART also identified previously unappreciated patient subsets and is a useful method for dissecting complex clinical situations and identifying homogeneous patient populations for future clinical trials.  (+info)

(8/293) Estimation of tamoxifen's efficacy for preventing the formation and growth of breast tumors.

BACKGROUND: Several randomized clinical trials have tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen is effective in preventing breast cancer. The largest such trial, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT), reported a 49% reduction in risk of invasive breast cancer for the tamoxifen group. However, it is unclear whether the effect of tamoxifen in this trial was mainly due to prevention of newly forming tumors or to treatment of occult disease. METHODS: We used various tumor growth models (i.e., exponential and Gompertzian [growth limited by tumor size]) and a computer simulation to approximate the percentage of detected tumors that were initiated after study entry. Maximum likelihood techniques were then used to estimate separately the efficacy of tamoxifen in treating occult disease and in preventing the formation and growth of new tumors. RESULTS: Under the assumptions of most of the growth models, the trial was sufficiently long for substantial numbers of new tumors to form, grow, and be detected during the trial. With the Gompertzian model and all available incidence data from the BCPT, it was estimated that 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 40%-80%) fewer new tumors were detected in the tamoxifen group than in the placebo group. Likewise, 35% (95% CI = 6%-63%) fewer occult tumors were detected in the tamoxifen group. With this model, the estimated incidence rate of invasive breast cancer among women in the placebo group of the BCPT was 7.7 (95% CI = 6.6-8.9) per 1000 women per year. Similar results were obtained with three exponential tumor growth models. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the concept that tamoxifen reduced cancer incidence in the BCPT through both treatment of occult disease and prevention of new tumor formation and growth. However, data from prevention trials may never be sufficient to completely distinguish prevention of new tumor formation from treatment of occult disease.  (+info)