Secondary glioblastoma remarkably reduced by steroid administration after anaplastic transformation from gliomatosis cerebri--case report.
A 45-year-old female presented with gliomatosis cerebri manifesting as hemiballismus-like involuntary movement in the arm, motor weakness in the leg, and hypesthesia in her left side. Computed tomography showed only diffuse swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere, but T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse lesion spreading from the right thalamus to the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes on the same side. No abnormal enhancement was recognized. Cerebral angiography showed no specific finding. A right occipital lobectomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. Anaplastic transformation was recognized 5 months later. The disease did not resolve with radiation or interferon administration, but steroid therapy achieved remarkably effective tumor regression. The patient died due to pneumonia. Autopsy showed the features of diffuse glioblastoma. Steroid therapy may be an effective treatment for gliomatosis cerebri before the terminal stage. (+info)
Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma: etiological similarities and differences.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma can now be compared epidemiologically through the use of population-based data not previously available for MCC. The results may provide new clues to etiology. In this study, United States data covered by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program were from nine areas of the United States (approximately 10% of the population). In 1986-1994, 425 cases of MCC were registered. The annual age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 of MCC was 0.23 for whites and 0.01 for blacks; among whites, the ratio of melanoma to MCC was approximately 65 to 1. Only 5% of MCC occurred before age 50, unlike the lifelong risk of nodular and superficial spreading melanoma. Regional incidence rates of both cancers increased similarly with increasing sun exposure as measured by the UVB solar index. The most sun-exposed anatomical site, the face, was the location of 36% of MCC but only 14% of melanoma. Both cancers increased in frequency and aggressiveness after immunosuppression and organ transplantation (36 cases from the Cincinnati Transplant Tumor registry and 12 from published case reports) and after B-cell neoplasia (5 cases in this study; 13 from case series in the literature). The SEER data contained reports of six patients with both types of cancer; 5 melanomas before the diagnosis of MCC and 1 after diagnosis. MCC and melanoma are similarly related to sun exposure and immunosuppression, but they differ markedly from one another in their distributions by age, race, and anatomical site, especially the face. (+info)
Clinical presentation, course, and prognostic factors in lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's disease: report from the European Task Force on Lymphoma Project on Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin's Disease.
PURPOSE: Recent studies have suggested that lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) is both clinically and pathologically distinct from other forms of Hodgkin's disease, including classical Hodgkin's disease (CHD). However, large-scale clinical studies were lacking. This multicenter, retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and course of LPHD patients and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's disease (LRCHD) patients classified according to morphologic and immunophenotypic criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data and biopsy material of all available cases initially submitted as LPHD were collected from 17 European and American centers, stained, and reclassified by expert pathologists. RESULTS: The 426 assessable cases were reclassified as LPHD (51%), LRCHD (27%), CHD (5%), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (3%), and reactive lesion (3%); 11% of cases were not assessable. Patients with LPHD and LRCHD were predominantly male, with early-stage disease and few risk factors. Patients with LRCHD were significantly older. Survival and failure-free survival rates with adequate therapy were similar for patients with LPHD and LRCHD, and were stage-dependent and not significantly better than stage-comparable results for CHD (German trial data). Twenty-seven percent of relapsing LPHD patients had multiple relapses, which is significantly more than the 5% of relapsing LRCHD patients who had multiple relapses. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease patients had significantly superior survival after relapse compared with LRCHD or CHD patients; however, this was partly due to the younger average age of LPHD patients. CONCLUSION: The two subgroups of LPHD and LRCHD bore a close clinical resemblance that was distinct from CHD; the course was similar to that of comparable nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity patients. Thorough staging is necessary to detect advanced disease in LPHD and LRCHD patients. The question of how to treat such patients, either by reducing treatment intensity or following a "watch and wait" approach, remains unanswered. (+info)
Therapy-related leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide or anthracyclines.
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of data regarding therapy-related leukemia (TRL) or myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) is critical for assessing the risk of developing such diseases and for subsequent decision-making processes for better treatment. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with TRL/t-MDS diagnosed at the National Cancer Center Hospital between January 1989 and September 1997. This report is concerned with those patients who initially had been treated with chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (median age, 55 years) developed TRL (n = 4) or t-MDS (n = 9). The median interval between the development of TRL/t-MDS and initial treatment was 94 months (range 23-190 months). For the primary therapy, all patients had received intense and prolonged treatment with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and/or anthracyclines including doxorubicin (DOX), with a median cumulative dose of 55 g/body (range 16.4-288.5 g) for CPA and 480 mg/m2 (range 395-625.5 mg/m2) for DOX. Seven patients were subsequently treated by chemotherapy and one received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians must remain alert to the risks associated with unproven medical practices which include long-term administration of alkylating agents. Selected patients with TRL/t-MDS may respond to intense salvage combination chemotherapy. (+info)
Secondary leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome after treatment with epipodophyllotoxins.
PURPOSE: The incidence of secondary leukemia after epipodophyllotoxin treatment and the relationship between epipodophyllotoxin cumulative dose and risk are not well characterized. The Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has developed a monitoring plan to obtain reliable estimates of the risk of secondary leukemia after epipodophyllotoxin treatment. METHODS: Twelve NCI-supported cooperative group clinical trials were identified that use epipodophyllotoxins at low (<1.5 g/m2 etoposide), moderate (1.5 to 2.99 g/m2 etoposide), or higher (> or =3.0 g/m2 etoposide) cumulative doses. Cases of secondary leukemia (including treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome) occurring on these trials have been reported to CTEP, as has duration of follow-up for all patients, thereby allowing calculation of cumulative 6-year incidence rates of secondary leukemia for each etoposide dose group. RESULTS: The calculated cumulative 6-year risks for development of secondary leukemia for the low, moderate, and higher cumulative dose groups were 3.3%, (95% upper confidence bound of 5.9%), 0.7% (95% upper confidence bound of 1.6%), and 2.2%, (95% upper confidence bound of 4.6%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Within the context of the epipodophyllotoxin cumulative dose range and schedules of administration encompassed by the monitoring plan regimens, and within the context of multiagent chemotherapy regimens that include alkylating agents, doxorubicin, and other agents, factors other than epipodophyllotoxin cumulative dose seem to be of primary importance in determining the risk of secondary leukemia. Data obtained by the CTEP secondary leukemia monitoring plan support the relative safety of using epipodophyllotoxins according to the therapeutic plans outlined in the monitored protocols. (+info)
Autologous transplantation of chemotherapy-purged PBSC collections from high-risk leukemia patients: a pilot study.
We have recently demonstrated that the combination of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard (NM) and etoposide (VP-16) is capable of eliminating, ex vivo, leukemic cells contaminating PBSC collections and this is associated with a significant recovery of primitive and committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. Based on these data a pilot study on autologous transplantation of NM/VP-16 purged PBSC for high-risk leukemic patients was recently initiated. Twelve patients (seven females and five males) with a median age of 46 years (range 18-57) have been treated. Two patients had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) resistant to conventional induction treatment, four patients had secondary AML in I complete remission (CR), one patient was in II CR after failing a previous autologous BM transplantation, while two additional AML individuals were in I CR achieved after three or more cycles of induction treatment. Two patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in I CR and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma and leukemic dissemination were also included. Eight patients showed karyotypic abnormalities associated with a poor clinical outcome. The mobilizing regimens included cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone with (n = 6) or without fludarabine (n = 3) followed by subcutaneous administration of G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day until the completion of PBSC collection) and G-CSF alone (n = 3) (15 microg/kg/day). A median of two aphereses (range 1-3) allowed the collection of 7.2 x 10(8) TNC/kg (range 3.4-11.5), 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (range 2.1-15.3) and 9.2 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0.3-236). PBSC were treated with a constant dose of 20 microg of VP-16/ml and a median individual-adjusted dose (survival < or = 5% of steady-state BM CFU-GM) of NM of 0.7 microg/ml (range 0.25-1.25). Eleven patients were reinfused after busulfan (16 mg/kg) and Cy (120 mg/kg) conditioning with a median residual dose of 0.3 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0-11.5). The median time to neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 x 10(9)/l) for evaluable patients was 25 days (range 12-59); the median time to platelet transfusion independence (>20 and >50 x 10(9)/l) was 40 days (18-95) and 69 days (29-235), respectively. Hospital discharge occurred at a median of 25 days (18-58) after stem cell reinfusion. Four individuals are alive in CR (n = 3) or with residual nodal disease (n = 1 lymphoma patient) with a follow-up of 32, 26, 3 and 14 months, respectively. Seven patients died due to disease progression or relapse (n = 5) or extrahematological transplant toxicity (n = 2). Our data suggest that pharmacological purging of leukapheresis collections of leukemic patients at high-risk of relapse is feasible and ex vivo treated cells reconstitute autologous hematopoiesis. (+info)
Epidemiological analysis of site relationships of synchronous and metachronous multiple primary cancers in the National Cancer Center, Japan, 1962-1996.
BACKGROUND: Multiple primary cancer (MPC) has been recognized as a problem commonly encountered in routine medical practice. A study of MPC is necessary not only to provide insights into the etiology of cancer, but also to provide information for effective medical care by clinical oncologists. METHODS: A cohort of 49,751 cancer patients who were admitted to the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1962 and 1996 was used to study the site relationship of MPC. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses using an internal reference group within the cohort were applied for the calculation of the prevalence odds ratio (POR) for site relationships of synchronous MPC and the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for those of metachronous MPC. RESULTS: Three site combinations with elevated risks for both synchronous and metachronous MPCs, eight with elevated risk for synchronous MPC, five with elevated risk for metachronous MPC and six with decreased risk for synchronous MPC were identified with statistical significance. Among them, the increased risk of metachronous stomach cancer following lymphoma and myeoloma (POR = 1.0 and 1.1, P > 0.05; IRR = 2.5, P < 0.05) and the inverse site-correlation of synchronous MPC between [trachea, bronchus and lung] and other sites of the upper aerodigestive tract [lip, oral cavity and pharynx] (POR = 0.5 and 0.3, P < 0.05) and esophagus (POR = 0.7 and 0.3, P < 0.05) have not been reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that interventions for lymphoma and myeloma might affect the development of subsequent stomach cancer and additional etiological factors other than tobacco smoking are associated with the development of cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract. (+info)
CD5 positive breast carcinoma in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: molecular studies of chromosome 13q.
A 67 year old woman presented with a right breast lump which proved to be a grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis. She had a five year history of CD5 positive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, which never required treatment. Immunoperoxidase stains for CD5, using the monoclonal antibody NCL-CD-54C7, showed that there was extensive infiltration of axillary lymph nodes with CD5 positive B lymphocytes. Strong staining for CD5 was also seen in the carcinoma cells within the breast and lymph node metastases. It has recently been suggested that there is a tumour suppresser locus in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia at 13q12.3 near or at the BRCA2 locus. Deletion of regions on chromosome 13q containing the BRCA2 and RB1 genes has also been reported in sporadic breast cancers. These observations suggest that there may be a link between these two diseases acting through chromosome 13, but amplification of several microsatellite repeat markers failed to show any loss of heterozygosity or repeat instability at either these or several other loci on chromosome 13. Examination of additional such cases is needed to perform a more comprehensive study of the significance of positive CD5 staining of breast carcinoma. (+info)