Effect of magnetic field exposure on anchorage-independent growth of a promoter-sensitive mouse epidermal cell line (JB6).
The anchorage-independent growth of mouse epidermal cells (JB6) exposed to 60-Hz magnetic fields (MF) was investigated. Promotion-responsive JB6 cells were suspended in agar (10(4)cells/plate) and exposed continuously to 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz magnetic fields for 10-14 days, with or without concurrent treatment with the tumor promoter tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). Exposures to MF were conducted in a manner such that the experimenter was blind to the treatment group of the cells. At the end of the exposure period, the anchorage-independent growth of JB6 cells on soft agar was examined by counting the number of colonies larger than 60 microm (minimum of 60 cells). The use of a combined treatment of the cells with both MF and TPA was to provide an internal positive control to estimate the success of the assay and to allow evaluation of co-promotion. Statistical analysis was performed by a randomized block design analysis of variance to examine both the effect of TPA treatment (alone and in combination with MF exposure) and the effect of intra-assay variability. Transformation frequency of JB6 cells displayed a dose-dependent response to increasing concentrations of TPA. Coexposure of cells to both TPA and 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz MF did not result in any differences in transformation frequency for any TPA concentrations tested (0-1 ng/ml). These data indicate that exposure to a 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz MF does not act as a promoter or co-promoter in promotion-sensitive JB6 cell anchorage-independent growth. (+info)
Possible carcinogenic effects of X-rays in a transgenerational study with CBA mice.
A lifetime experiment using 4279 CBA/J mice was carried out to investigate whether the pre-conceptual exposure of sperm cells to X-ray radiation or urethane would result in an increased cancer risk in the untreated progeny, and/or increased susceptibility to cancer following exposure to a promoting agent. The study consisted of four main groups, namely a control group (saline), a urethane group (1 mg/g body wt) and two X-ray radiation groups (1 Gy, 2 Gy). At 1, 3 and 9 weeks after treatment, the males of these four parental groups were mated with untreated virgin females. The offspring of each parental group was divided into two subgroups: one received s.c. urethane (0.1 mg/g body wt once) as a promoter, the other saline, at the age of 6 weeks. All animals were evaluated for the occurrence of tumours. K-ras oncogene and p53 tumour suppressor gene mutations were investigated in frozen lung tumour samples. The female offspring of male parents exposed to X-rays 1 week before their mating showed a trend towards a higher tumour incidence of the haematopoietic system than the F1 controls. In addition, a higher percentage of bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinomas in male offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 1 week after X-ray treatment points to a plausible increased sensitivity of post-meiotic germ cell stages towards transgenerational carcinogenic effects. On the other hand, no increased tumour incidence and malignancy were observed in the offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 3 and 9 weeks after X-ray treatment. Paternal urethane treatment 1, 3 and 9 weeks prior to conception did not result in significantly altered incidence or malignancy of tumours of the lung, liver and haematopoietic tissue in the offspring. K-ras mutations increased during tumour progression from bronchioloalveolar hyperplasia to adenoma. Codon 61 K-ras mutations were more frequent in lung tumours of urethane-promoted progeny from irradiated parents than from control parents. P53 mutations were absent from these lung alterations. (+info)
p53 mutations in human cutaneous melanoma correlate with sun exposure but are not always involved in melanomagenesis.
In melanoma, the relationship between sun exposure and the origin of mutations in either the N-ras oncogene or the p53 tumour-suppressor gene is not as clear as in other types of skin cancer. We have previously shown that mutations in the N-ras gene occur more frequently in melanomas originating from sun-exposed body sites, indicating that these mutations are UV induced. To investigate whether sun exposure also affects p53 in melanoma, we analysed 81 melanoma specimens for mutations in the p53 gene. The mutation frequency is higher than thus far reported: 17 specimens (21%) harbour one or more p53 mutations. Strikingly, 17 out of 22 mutations in p53 are of the C:G to TA or CC:GG to TT:AA transitional type, strongly suggesting an aetiology involving UV exposure. Interestingly, the p53 mutation frequency in metastases was much lower than in primary tumours. In the case of metastases, a role for sun exposure was indicated by the finding that the mutations are present exclusively in skin metastases and not in internal metastases. Together with a relatively frequent occurrence of silent third-base pair mutations in primary melanomas, this indicates that the p53 mutations, at least in these tumours, have not contributed to melanomagenesis and may have originated after establishment of the primary tumour. (+info)
Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia before and after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine.
The prevalence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in men who underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident was studied. BPH samples were obtained by adenomectomy from 45 patients operated in 1984 before the accident (Group I), and 47 patients from the low contaminated Kiev City (Group II) and 76 from high contaminated area (Group III) operated between 1996 and 1998. Their BPH samples were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The incidences of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and high grade PIN (HGPIN) were 15.5 and 11.1% in Group I, 29.8 and 14.9% in Grpoup II, and 35. 5 and 19.7% in Group III. The difference between the incidences of PIN in Group I and III is significant (p<0.02). There was increased apoptosis in areas of PIN in Group II and III as compared to Group I (p<0.001). Since apoptosis has been shown to be associated with ionizing radiation and it is now found to be associated with PIN in patients diagnosed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, this suggests that long-term low dose internal ionizing radiation potentially may cause prostate cancer. (+info)
Cancer mortality and morbidity among plutonium workers at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels.
The mortality of all 14 319 workers employed at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels between 1947 and 1975 was studied up to the end of 1992, and cancer incidence was examined from 1971 to 1986, in relation to their exposures to plutonium and to external radiation. The cancer mortality rate was 5% lower than that of England and Wales and 3% less than that of Cumbria. The significant excesses of deaths from cancer of the pleura and thyroid found in an earlier study persist with further follow-up (14 observed, 4.0 expected for pleura; 6 observed, 2.2 expected for thyroid). All of the deaths from pleural cancer were among radiation workers. For neither site was there a significant association between the risk of the cancer and accumulated radiation dose. There were significant deficits of deaths from cancers of mouth and pharynx, liver and gall bladder, and larynx and leukaemia when compared with the national rates. Among all radiation workers, there was a significant positive association between accumulated external radiation dose and mortality from cancers of ill-defined and secondary sites (10-year lag, P = 0.04), leukaemia (no lag, P = 0.03; 2-year lag, P = 0.05), multiple myeloma (20-year lag, P = 0.02), all lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers (20-year lag, P= 0.03) and all causes of death combined (20-year lag, P= 0.008). Among plutonium workers, there were significant excesses of deaths from cancer of the breast (6 observed, 2.6 expected) and ill-defined and secondary cancers (29 observed, 20.1 expected). No significant positive trends were observed between the risk of deaths from cancers of any specific site, or all cancers combined, and cumulative plutonium and external radiation doses. For no cancer site was there a significant excess of cancer registrations compared with rates for England and Wales. Analysis of trends in cancer incidence showed significant increases in risk with cumulative plutonium plus external radiation doses for all lymphatic and haematopoietic neoplasms for 0-, 10- and 20-year lag periods. Taken as a whole, our findings do not suggest that workers at Sellafield who have been exposed to plutonium are at an overall significantly increased risk of cancer compared with other radiation workers. (+info)
Lack of effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field on biomarkers of tumor promotion in the skin of SENCAR mice.
It has been proposed that extremely low frequency magnetic fields may enhance tumorigenesis through a co-promotional mechanism. This hypothesis has been further tested using the two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis, i.e. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced promotion of skin carcinogenesis in mice initiated by a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Experimentation utilized three different doses of TPA within its dose-response range (0.85, 1.70 or 3.40 nmol) and examined the following early biomarkers of tumor promotion after 1, 2 and 5 weeks of promotion: increases in epidermal thickness and the labeling index of epidermal cells, induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and down-regulation of epidermal protein kinase C activity. Mice exposed to a 60 Hz magnetic field having a flux density of 2 mT for 6 h/day for 5 days/week were compared with mice exposed to an ambient magnetic field. Within the sensitivity limits of the biomarker methodology and the exposure parameters employed, no consistent, statistically significant effects indicative of promotion or co-promotion by the magnetic field were demonstrated. (+info)
Radiation-induced esophageal carcinoma 30 years after mediastinal irradiation: case report and review of the literature.
A 54-year-old man who had been irradiated in 1964 for cervical involvement by Hodgkin's disease was admitted in December 1994 to our clinic with strong complaints of dysphagia. The reason was a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the proximal esophagus in the previously irradiated region. The patient had no risk factors (abuse of nicotine or alcohol) for the developement of esophageal carcinoma. A reirradiation was performed, but the disease progressed locally and two weeks after the beginning of the therapy the patient developed two tracheoesophagocutaneous fistulae. The radiation therapy was discontinued and the tumor stenosis was bridged by a tube closing the fistulae. A retrospective dose analysis to evaluate the applied doses will be performed. Furthermore, an overview of 66 cases of the literature with radiation-induced esophageal carcinoma analysed concerning applied dose and latent interval will be given. In conclusion the reported case fits the criteria for radiation-induced malignancies (Chudecki Br J Radiol 1972;45:303-4) known from literature: (1) a history of previous irradiation, (2) a cancer occurring within the irradiated area, (3) gross tissue damage due to an excessive dose of radiation, and (4) a long latent interval between irradiation and development of cancer. Esophageal carcinomas belong to the rare secondary malignancies after the therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless in patients with dysphagia they should be suspected as a differential diagnosis even many years after mediastinal irradiation. The treatment of these tumors is very difficult and is associated with a poor prognosis. (+info)
A critical review of epidemiologic studies of radiofrequency exposure and human cancers.
This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to radiofrequency (RF) transmissions and various types of human cancer. These studies include three cluster investigations and five studies relating to general populations; all of these studies consider place of residence at the time of cancer diagnosis in regard to proximity to radio or television transmitters. There are also five relevant occupational cohort studies and several case-control studies of particular types of cancer. These studies assessed a large number of possible associations. Several positive associations suggesting an increased risk of some types of cancer in those who may have had greater exposure to RF emissions have been reported. However, the results are inconsistent: there is no type of cancer that has been consistently associated with RF exposures. The epidemiologic evidence falls short of the strength and consistency of evidence that is required to come to a reasonable conclusion that RF emissions are a likely cause of one or more types of human cancer. The evidence is weak in regard to its inconsistency, the design of the studies, the lack of detail on actual exposures, and the limitations of the studies in their ability to deal with other likely relevant factors. In some studies there may be biases in the data used (+info)