(1/85) Spontaneous intralesional haemorrhage in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours: a series of five cases.
Five patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) showing extensive secondary haemorrhage, a finding not previously associated with these neoplasms, are described. The clinical presentations, neuroimaging findings, and histopathological features of these patients are reviewed. One patient, a previously asymptomatic 12 year old girl, presented with an acute intracerebral haemorrhage into a DNT. A further four young adults with histories of intractable partial and generalised seizures dating from childhood showed significant chronic haemorrhages within DNT, the MRI appearances in one patient giving a false impression of a cavernoma. Histopathology disclosed vascular abnormalities within these tumours which, together with other factors discussed, may have predisposed these tumours to haemorrhage. (+info)
(2/85) MR spectroscopy in gliomatosis cerebri.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri with MR imaging is known to be difficult. We report on the value of MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis, grading, and biopsy planing in eight patients with histopathologically proved gliomatosis cerebri. METHODS: Patients underwent MR imaging and MR spectroscopy (single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy [PRESS] at 1500/135, and chemical-shift imaging [CSI] PRESS at 1500/135) before open (n = 4) or stereotactic (n = 4) biopsy. In six patients who underwent CSI, biopsy samples were taken from regions of maximally elevated levels of choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA). RESULTS: All patients showed elevated Cho/creatine (Cr) and Cho/NAA levels as well as varying degrees of decreased NAA/Cr ratios, which were most pronounced in the anaplastic lesions. In low-grade lesions, there was a maximum Cho/NAA ratio of 1.3, whereas in anaplastic tumors, the maximum Cho/NAA level was at least 2.5. Spectra in two patients with grade III lesions revealed a lactate peak; lactate and lipid signals were seen in two patients with grade IV lesions. Biopsy specimens from regions with maximally elevated levels of Cho/NAA showed dense infiltration of tumor cells. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy might be used to classify gliomatosis cerebri as a stable or a progressive disease indicating its potential therapeutic relevance. (+info)
(3/85) Diffuse cerebrospinal gliomatosis with extensive leptomeningeal spread.
A case of diffuse cerebrospinal gliomatosis with extensive leptomeningeal spread is presented. The patient, an 18-year-old girl, was admitted due to progressive weakness and paresthesia of both legs, following rapid neuropsychiatric deterioration. An initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the T-spine showed diffuse high signal intensities from T9 to T12 spinal cords on a T2 sagittal image and diffuse cord bulging at T1WI. This suggested an inflammatory lesion such as tuberculosis or fungal meningoencephalitis. A limited autopsy was performed. A microscopic examination revealed multifocal GFAP-positive astrocytic proliferations that were low grade astrocytoma in the cerebral leptomeninges, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord and spinal leptomeninges. The high proliferative indices of the spinal lesion and aneuploidy correspond to a diagnosis of malignant astrocytoma and a rapid fatal clinical course. (+info)
(4/85) Failed surgery for epilepsy. A study of persistence and recurrence of seizures following temporal resection.
From a series of 282 consecutive temporal resections for medically intractable epilepsy associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) or non-specific pathology (NSP), 51 patients had persistent or recurrent seizures occurring at least monthly. Of these patients, 44 underwent detailed assessment of their postoperative seizures, which included clinical evaluation, interictal and ictal EEG and high-resolution MRI. Of the 20 patients with MTS in the original pathology, 14 (70%) had postoperative seizures arising in the hemisphere of the resection, the majority (12 patients) in the temporal region. Although MRI demonstrated residual hippocampus in five of these 12 patients, only one patient was considered to have seizures arising there, whilst the remainder had electroclinical evidence of seizure onset in the neocortex. In contrast, five of the MTS relapses (25%) had seizure onset exclusively in the contralateral temporal region. Among the 14 patients with non-specific pathology, relapse was also predominantly from the ipsilateral hemisphere (64%), but more relapsed from extratemporal sites compared with the MTS cases, including two with NSP who had occipital structural abnormalities. Although 70% of the 10 patients with DNT had postoperative partial seizures arising in the ipsilateral hemisphere, many (60%) had evidence of a more diffuse disorder with additional generalized seizures, cognitive and behavioural disturbance and multifocal and generalized EEG abnormalities. Nine patients (20%) had immediate postoperative seizure-free periods of at least 1 year, and seven of these had MTS in the operative specimen. Of these seven patients, four had ipsilateral temporal seizures and three had contralateral temporal seizures. Overall, few missed lesions were discovered on postoperative MRI and reoperations were performed or considered possible in a minority of cases. Despite well-defined preoperative electroclinical syndromes of temporal lobe epilepsy, many patients relapsed unexpectedly, either immediately or remotely from the time of surgery. Maturing epileptogenicity in a surgical scar was not, however, considered to be a significant primary mechanism in patients who relapsed after a seizure-free interval. (+info)
(5/85) Malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma in a llama.
A lesion was identified in the eye of a juvenile llama, and preliminary clinical findings included anterior uveitis and an exudative retinal detachment suggestive of infectious disease. However, histopathologic evaluation of the enucleated globe revealed an intraocular neoplasm composed of primitive neuroepithelium forming ribbons, cords, and rosettes, heteroplastic elements including spindle cells in a loose myxomatous matrix, and islands of well-differentiated hyaline cartilage. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and neuron-specific enolase. Spindle cells were multifocally positive for desmin and muscle specific actin, indicating differentiation towards myofibers. These findings are consistent with a diagnosis of malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma, an extremely rare ocular neoplasm that affects children and young animals. (+info)
(6/85) Hsp70 plasma membrane expression on primary tumor biopsy material and bone marrow of leukemic patients.
A tumor-selective cell surface localization of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), the major heat-inducible member of the Hsp70 group, correlates with an increased sensitivity to lysis mediated by human natural killer (NK) cells and, therefore, might be of clinical relevance. With the exception of mammary carcinomas, an Hsp70 plasma membrane expression was found on freshly isolated human biopsy material of colorectal, lung, neuronal, and pancreas carcinomas, liver metastases, and leukemic blasts of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Since normal tissues and bone marrow of healthy human individuals do not express Hsp70 on the cell surface, Hsp70 can be considered as a tumor-selective structure in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that autologous, Hsp70-positive leukemic blasts can be killed by NK cells stimulated with low doses of interleukin 2 plus recombinant Hsp70 protein. (+info)
(7/85) Drug resistance in epilepsy: expression of drug resistance proteins in common causes of refractory epilepsy.
Epilepsy is resistant to drug treatment in about one-third of cases, but the mechanisms underlying this drug resistance are not understood. In cancer, drug resistance has been studied extensively. Amongst the various resistance mechanisms, overexpression of drug resistance proteins, such as multi-drug resistance gene-1 P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), has been shown to correlate with cellular resistance to anticancer drugs. Previous studies in human epilepsy have shown that MDR1 and MRP1 may also be overexpressed in brain tissue from patients with refractory epilepsy; expression has been shown in glia and neurones, which do not normally express these proteins. We examined expression of MDR1 and MRP1 in refractory epilepsy from three common causes, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNTs; eight cases), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD; 14 cases) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS; eight cases). Expression was studied immunohistochemically in lesional tissue from therapeutic resections and compared with expression in histologically normal adjacent tissue. With the most sensitive antibodies, in all eight DNT cases, reactive astrocytes within tumour nodules expressed MDR1 and MRP1. In five of eight HS cases, reactive astrocytes within the gliotic hippocampus expressed MDR1 and MRP1. Of 14 cases of FCD, MDR1 and MRP1 expression was noted in reactive astrocytes in all cases. In five FCD cases, MRP1 expression was also noted in dysplastic neurones. In FCD and DNTs, accentuation of reactivity was noted around lesional vessels. Immunoreactivity was always more frequent and intense in lesional reactive astrocytes than in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in adjacent histologically normal tissue. MDR1 is able to transport some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and MRP1 may also do so. The overexpression of these drug resistance proteins in tissue from patients with refractory epilepsy suggests one possible mechanism for drug resistance in patients with these pathologies. We propose that overexpressed resistance proteins lower the interstitial concentration of AEDs in the vicinity of the epileptogenic pathology and thereby render the epilepsy caused by these pathologies resistant to treatment with AEDs. (+info)
(8/85) Astroblastoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation and distinction from ependymoma.
SUMMARY: Astroblastoma is a rare primary glial tumor with a characteristic appearance on neuroradiologic images. Typically, astroblastomas are large, lobulated, peripheral, supratentorial, solid, and cystic masses with relatively little associated vasogenic edema and tumor infiltration for their large size. The solid component of the mass has a bubbly appearance and a T2 signal that is isointense to gray matter. Punctate calcifications are often present. Neuroradiologists should be familiar with the characteristic appearance of this tumor. (+info)