Sequential accumulation of K-ras mutations and p53 overexpression in the progression of pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms to malignancy.
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) provide a spectrum of neoplastic changes ranging from benign to malignant. The authors have correlated K-ras mutations and p53 overexpression with the evolution of these tumors. METHODS: Areas of mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia were microdissected from paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 28 different MCNs (10 benign, 9 borderline, 9 malignant). Nonneoplastic pancreatic ducts were also microdissected from tissues adjacent to the tumors. Ten serous cystadenomas served as negative controls. K-ras codon 12 mutations were identified by a mutant-enriched nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and confirmed by sequencing. p53 overexpression was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: K-ras mutations were detected in 20% of benign, 33% of borderline, and 89% of malignant MCNs. Histologically, mutations were found in 26% (7/27) of MCN epithelia with mild dysplasia, 38% (5/13) of MCN epithelia with moderate dysplasia, and 89% (8/9) of MCN epithelia with severe dysplasia or carcinoma. Ten percent (4/39) of nonneoplastic pancreatic ducts at the margins of MCN harbored mutations, all associated with borderline or malignant tumors. Overexpression of p53 occurred in none of the benign or borderline MCNs but in 44% (4/9) of the malignant tumors (p = 0.006 benign/borderline vs. malignant). p53 immunoreactivity was concentrated in areas of severe dysplasia/carcinoma or invasion, where K-ras mutation had been detected. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate a sequential accumulation of genetic changes in the carcinogenesis of MCN. K-ras mutations appear early and increase in proportion with increasing dysplasia. Overexpression of p53 is a late finding observed only in carcinomas, and in combination with mutated K-ras genes. The presence of K-ras mutations in nonneoplastic ducts supports formal pancreatic resection over enucleation for treatment. Mucinous cystic neoplasms may be a useful model to study the evolution of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, in which precursor lesions remain unknown. (+info)
p27Kip1 expression is associated with clinical outcome in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: multivariate analysis.
Few biological parameters have been shown to have a prognostic role in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. p27Kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and its loss may contribute to tumor progression. We determined whether p27Kip1 protein expression in advanced ovarian cancer could be associated with prognosis. p27Kip1 status was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections from primary tumors of 99 patients with stages III-IV ovarian carcinoma and was analyzed in relation to clinicopathological variables, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS). p27Kip1 expression was detected in 47 (47%) of the 99 patients. p27 expression did not correlate with any of the classical clinicopathological parameters. Loss of p27 protein was significantly associated with a short TTP (P = 0.0004) and decreased OS (P = 0.0302). The 5-year TTP rate in p27-positive patients was 50% versus 11% in p27-negative patients. p27-positive cases showed a 5-year OS rate of 53% compared with 43% of p27-negative cases. In multivariate analysis, p27 expression was an independent predictor of progression of disease (P = 0.0009) and survival (P = 0.0032) when considered together with stage of disease, presence of ascites, and residual tumor at surgery. Loss of p27Kip1 conferred poor prognosis independently of proliferative index, as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining. p27 immunoreactivity can be used to predict progression of disease and survival in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and therefore may represent a new prognostic marker. (+info)
Reproduction-related risk factors for mucinous and nonmucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.
The proposition that mucinous ovarian cancer has an etiology distinct from that of other histologic types has been evaluated using data from a population-based case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer conducted in 1990--1993 among Australian women aged 18--79 years. The protective effects of parity and oral contraceptive use were greater in nonmucinous than in mucinous ovarian tumors. However, these differences appeared to be driven largely by the effect of ovulatory life, which was positively associated with nonmucinous tumors only. An association with family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer also appeared to be restricted to nonmucinous cancers. These results lend support to the hypothesis that mucinous and nonmucinous ovarian tumors develop via different causal mechanisms. (+info)
Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer risk by histologic type: a multiethnic case-control study.
Associations of reproductive factors with ovarian cancer may differ by histologic type. Data from a multiethnic, population-based, case-control study, conducted in Hawaii and Los Angeles, California, between 1993 and 1999, were used to assess this hypothesis. A structured questionnaire was administered to 558 histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 607 population controls. Factors suppressing ovulation, including pregnancy and oral contraceptive use, were inversely associated with the risk of all histologic types. Nonmucinous but not mucinous tumors were significantly associated with menstruation years (odds ratio = 1.5 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile) and lifetime ovulatory cycles (odds ratio = 2.8 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). Duration of breastfeeding (odds ratio = 0.4 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile) was significantly and inversely related to nonmucinous tumors but not to mucinous tumors. Among all tumor types, endometrioid tumors were the most strongly related to pregnancy and tubal ligation, while clear cell tumors were the only type that was associated with noncontraceptive hormone use. The risk factors were similar for borderline and invasive tumors, except for age at diagnosis. Mucinous tumors, both borderline and invasive, were more common in Asian women than in Caucasian and other women. Our data suggest that histologic types of epithelial ovarian cancer are etiologically distinct. (+info)
Increase in expression of the copper transporter ATP7A during platinum drug-based treatment is associated with poor survival in ovarian cancer patients.
PURPOSE: The Cu efflux transporter ATP7A is overexpressed in some cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We examined the expression of ATP7A in the major normal human organs and in several types of human malignancies and sought to determine whether ATP7A expression changed during treatment of ovarian carcinomas with Pt-containing regimens. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ATP7A expression was quantified by immunohistochemical staining using microarrays containing normal and malignant tissues, and standard sections of 54 paired tumor samples obtained from ovarian carcinoma patients before and after at least two cycles of platinum-based therapy. RESULTS: ATP7A was expressed in normal endometrium, prostate, testis, and kidney but was not detected in the other major organs. ATP7A was expressed in some of the most common human malignancies, including prostate (7 of 7), breast (10 of 10), lung (8 of 8), colon (5 of 8), and ovary (6 of 7), as well as in a wide variety of other types of malignancy. ATP7A staining was detected in 28 of 54 ovarian carcinomas before treatment. Patients with increased ATP7A expression after treatment (18 of 54) exhibited poorer actuarial survival (P<0.0057 by log-rank test). Expression of ATP7A either before or after treatment was not associated with other clinical factors. CONCLUSIONS: Although ATP7A is not detectable in most normal tissues it is expressed in a considerable fraction of many common tumor types. Enrichment of the tumor for ATP7A-expressing cells during platinum drug-based treatment of ovarian cancers is associated with poor survival. These findings are in agreement with results of in vitro studies from this laboratory demonstrating that increased expression of ATP7A renders cells resistant to cisplatin and carboplatin. (+info)
Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis and treatment of cystic tumors of the pancreas.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows high resolution imaging of the pancreas. EUS is a very useful technique for evaluating morphological features of a cystic tumors of the pancreas. These features include thick wall type, tumor protruding type, thick septal type, microcystic type, thin septal type and simple type. Malignant cystic lesions may present as a hypoechoic cystic/solid mass or as a complex cyst and are frequently associated with a dilated main pancreatic duct. There is some overlap between EUS appearances of non-neoplastic and neoplastic cystic pancreatic lesions. EUS guided FNA of cystic pancreatic lesions can play an important role in the differential diagnosis of these lesions and deciding about the need for surgery by evaluating cytology and tumor markers such as CEA in cyst fluid. There is some emerging data on EUS guided treatment of cystic pancreatic tumors by injection of alcohol. (+info)
Subcellular localization of p27kip1 expression predicts poor prognosis in human ovarian cancer.
PURPOSE: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) regulates cellular progression from G(1) to S phase. Several studies have shown that loss of p27(kip1) protein expression is associated with disease progression in various malignancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the subcellular localization of this cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in a large cohort of primary ovarian carcinomas and compare the results with clinicopathologic variables and overall survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Subcellular localization of p27(kip1) was first assessed by Western blotting in nuclear and cytoplasmic extract from 13 cases of ovarian carcinoma. Subcellular localization of the p27(kip1) protein was evaluated using tissue microarrays containing 421 cases of ovarian carcinoma. RESULTS: The presence of p27(kip1) in the cytoplasm regardless of the nuclear stain correlated strongly with late-stage disease (P < 0.03), extent of cytoreduction (P = 0.03), and shorter disease-specific survival (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic localization of p27(kip1) predicts poorer prognosis in ovarian carcinoma, particularly in late-stage disease. (+info)
Differential gene expression in ovarian tumors reveals Dusp 4 and Serpina 5 as key regulators for benign behavior of serous borderline tumors.
PURPOSE: Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBT) are characterized by arborizing papillae lined by stratified epithelial cells, varying atypia, and absence of stromal invasion. Originally, these tumors have been classified as borderline because they behaved in a remarkably indolent manner, even with widespread tumor deposits called implants and the presence of lymph node involvement. The molecular biology of these lesions has just begun to be explored. High prevalence of B-RAF/K-RAS mutations in SBTs in contrast to serous carcinomas (SCAs) indicates that the mitogenic RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAP kinase pathway is crucial for the pathogenesis of SBTs. The purpose of this study was to further unravel the genetic pathways through which SBTs develop, with a special focus on explaining the generally benign SBT behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated RNA expression profiles of 38 ovarian serous neoplasms. Global Test pathway analysis and significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) of the expression profiles was performed. RESULTS: SAM and Global Testing showed that although the mitogenic pathway is activated in SBTs, activation of downstream genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is absent, suggesting an uncoupling of both events. In addition, we show that two genes involved in regulating this uncoupling, ERK-inhibitor Dusp 4 and uPA-inhibitor Serpina 5, are downregulated in SCAs in contrast to SBTs. In SCAs, this was associated with downstream MMP-9 activation at both mRNA and protein level. CONCLUSION: We propose that the putative tumor suppressor genes Dusp 4 and Serpina 5 provide a major clue to the indolent behavior of SBTs. (+info)