Pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its metabolites SN-38 and APC in children with recurrent solid tumors after protracted low-dose irinotecan.
Irinotecan (IRN), a topoisomerase I interactive agent, has significant antitumor activity in early Phase I studies in children with recurrent solid tumors. However, the disposition of IRN and its metabolites, SN-38 and APC, in children has not been reported. Children with solid tumors refractory to conventional therapy received IRN by a 1-h i.v. infusion at either 20, 24, or 29 mg/m2 daily for 5 consecutive days for 2 weeks. Serial blood samples were collected after doses 1 and 10 of the first course. IRN, SN-38, and APC lactone concentrations were determined by an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography assay. A linear four-compartment model was fit simultaneously to the IRN, SN-38, and APC plasma concentration versus time data. Systemic clearance rate for IRN was 58.7 +/- 18.8 liters/h/m2 (mean +/- SD). The mean +/- SD ng/ml x h single-day lactone SN-38 area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-->6) was 90.9 +/- 96.4, 103.7 +/- 62.4, and 95.3 +/- 63.9 at IRN doses of 20, 24, and 29 mg/m2, respectively. The relative extent of IRN conversion to SN-38 and metabolism to APC measured after dose 1 were 0.49 +/- 0.33 and 0.29 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD). No statistically significant intrapatient difference was noted for SN-38 area under the concentration-time curve. Large interpatient variability in IRN and metabolite disposition was observed. The relative extent of conversion and the SN-38 systemic exposure achieved with this protracted schedule of administration were much greater than reported in adults or children receiving larger intermittent doses. (+info
Neoplasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio) treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene by two exposure routes at different developmental stages.
Using zebrafish, Danio rerio, initial pioneering work in the 1960s revealed carcinogen responsiveness of fish, yet very few subsequent tumorigenesis investigations have utilized this species. We exposed embryos (60 hours postfertilization) and fry (3 week posthatch) to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) by immersion in aqueous solutions for 24 hours, at concentrations of 0-1 or 0-5 ppm (mg/L), respectively. Juvenile zebrafish 2 months posthatch were fed a diet containing 0-1,000 ppm DMBA for 4 months. Fish were sampled for histologic evaluation at 7-12 months after the onset of carcinogen treatment. Fry were most responsive to DMBA and showed the widest diversity of target tissues and histologic types of neoplasia, having several types of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural neoplasia. The principal target tissues for carcinogenic response were liver following embryo or fry exposure, with gill and blood vessel the second and third most responsive tissues in fry. Intestine was the primary target and gill a secondary target in fish that received dietary DMBA as juveniles. These studies indicate that young zebrafish are most responsive to DMBA, showing a greater diversity of neoplasm types than rainbow trout. Thus, zebrafish are a valuable model system in which to study mechanistic aspects of the carcinogenesis process. (+info
Neoplasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio) treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine by three exposure routes at different developmental stages.
We exposed embryos (83 hours postfertilizaton) and fry (3 weeks posthatch) to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) by immersion in aqueous solutions of 0-10 ppm for 1 hour (embryo) or 0-2 ppm for 24 hours (fry). Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with MNNG at levels of 0 or 96 ng/egg. Diets containing 0-2,000 ppm MNNG were fed to juvenile zebrafish for 3 months beginning at 2 months posthatch. Fish were sampled for histopathologic study at 6-12 months after initiation of carcinogen exposure. Embryos and fry were both quite responsive to MNNG; however, juvenile zebrafish were remarkably refractory to MNNG-induced neoplasia. Principal target organs in zebrafish treated as embryos with MNNG were liver and testis, with hepatocellular adenoma the most prevalent hepatic neoplasm. A variety of mesenchymal neoplasms occurred in zebrafish following embryo exposure to MNNG, including chondroma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. Testis and blood vessels were primary target organs for MNNG following fry exposure, with seminoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and various other epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms occurring. The zebrafish is a responsive, cost-effective lower vertebrate model system in which to study mechanisms of carcinogenesis. (+info
Alpha-inhibin immunoreactivity in soft-tissue neoplasia.
Antibodies directed against alpha-inhibin have been previously reported as staining both sex cord-stromal neoplasms as well as adrenal cortical tumors. This relatively restricted immunoreactivity pattern is useful in the assessment of retroperitoneal masses, especially in a setting of limited tissue (e.g., needle biopsy). However, no study to date has evaluated alpha-inhibin immunoreactivity in soft-tissue neoplasms, which frequently enter the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses. We investigate the incidence of alpha-inhibin staining in a variety of soft-tissue neoplasms by using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 282 previously classified soft-tissue neoplasms with anti-alpha-inhibin (Serotec, 1:75). A modified avidin-biotin complex method was used after heat-induced epitope retrieval. Cytoplasmic granular staining was considered positive. Of the 282 tumors studied, a total of 8 (2.8%) demonstrated positive staining with anti-alpha-inhibin antibody. These included 4 of 25 liposarcomas (16%), 2 of 18 angiosarcomas (11%), 1 of 48 lipomas (2.1%), and 1 of 1 rhabdomyoma (100%). Negative staining was noted among hemangiomas (0/28), schwannomas (0/32), leiomyomas (0/16), fibrosarcomas (0/2), fibromas (0/11), dermatofibromas (0/9), neurofibromas (0/6), synovial sarcomas (0/15), rhabdomyosarcomas (0/10), Triton tumors (0/2), and malignant fibrous histiocytomas (0/59). We conclude that rare soft-tissue tumors, especially those exhibiting either lipomatous or vascular differentiation, demonstrate alpha-inhibin immunoreactivity. These findings re-emphasize the need for a well-construed antibody panel when immunohistochemical methods are employed in the evaluation of retroperitoneal neoplasms. However, the rarity of alpha-inhibin expression by soft-tissue neoplasms provides further support for its overall specificity as a marker of adrenal cortical differentiation in the biopsy evaluation of a retroperitoneal mass. (+info
Nuclear beta-catenin in mesenchymal tumors.
Beta-catenin is a crucial part of the Wnt and E-cadherin signalling pathways, which are involved in tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of these pathways allow beta-catenin to accumulate and translocate to the nucleus, where it may activate oncogenes. Such nuclear accumulation can be detected by immunohistochemistry, which may be useful in diagnosis. Although the role of beta-catenin has been established in various types of carcinomas, relatively little is known about its status in mesenchymal tumors. A number of studies suggest that beta-catenin dysregulation is important in desmoid-type fibromatosis, as well as in synovial sarcoma. We wished to determine whether nuclear beta-catenin expression is specific to and sensitive for particular bone and soft-tissue tumors, including sporadic desmoid-type fibromatosis. We studied the nuclear expression of beta-catenin using tissue microarrays in a comprehensive range of bone and soft-tissue tumor types. A total of 549 cases were included in our panel. Nuclear immunohistochemical staining was determined to be either high level (>25% of cells), low level (0-25%) or none. High-level nuclear beta-catenin staining was seen in a very limited subset of tumor types, including desmoid-type fibromatosis (71% of cases), solitary fibrous tumor (40%), endometrial stromal sarcoma (40%) and synovial sarcoma (28%). Although occasional cases of fibrosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma and carcinosarcoma had high-level staining, no high-level nuclear beta-catenin expression was seen in any of 381 fibrohistocytic, muscular, adipocytic, chondroid or osseous tumor cases representing 42 diagnostic categories. All primary immunostain tissue microarray images are made publicly accessible in a searchable database. High-level nuclear beta-catenin staining serves as a useful diagnostic tool, as it is specific to a small subset of mesenchymal tumors. (+info
A molecular map of mesenchymal tumors.
BACKGROUND: Bone and soft tissue tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms thought to derive from cells of the mesenchyme or neural crest. Histological diagnosis is challenging due to the poor or heterogenous differentiation of many tumors, resulting in uncertainty over prognosis and appropriate therapy. RESULTS: We have undertaken a broad and comprehensive study of the gene expression profile of 96 tumors with representatives of all mesenchymal tissues, including several problem diagnostic groups. Using machine learning methods adapted to this problem we identify molecular fingerprints for most tumors, which are pathognomonic (decisive) and biologically revealing. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the utility of gene expression profiles and machine learning for a complex clinical problem, and identify putative origins for certain mesenchymal tumors. (+info
Activation of the mTOR pathway in sporadic angiomyolipomas and other perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms.
Angiomyolipoma (AML) belong to a family of tumors known as perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) that share a common immunophenotypic profile of muscle and melanocytic differentiation. These tumors are clonal in nature and have a strong association with tuberous sclerosis. Genetic analyses have reported allelic imbalance at the TSC2 locus on 16p13. In the context of non-tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), non-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-associated AMLs, and non-renal PEComas, the functional status of the TSC2 signaling pathway has not been reported. Studies over the last several years have uncovered a critical role of the TSC1/2 genes in negatively regulating the Rheb/mTOR/p70S6K cascade. Here, we examined the activity of this pathway in sporadic AMLs and PEComas using immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. We found increased levels of phospho-p70S6K, a marker of mTOR activity, in 15 of 15 non-TSC AMLs. This was accompanied by reduced phospho-AKT expression, a pattern that is consistent with the disruption of TSC1/2 function. Western blot analysis confirmed mTOR activation concurrent with the loss of TSC2 and not TSC1 in sporadic AMLs. Similarly, elevated phospho-p70S6K and reduced phospho-AKT expression was detected in 14 of 15 cases of extrarenal PEComas. These observations provide the first functional evidence that mTOR activation is common to sporadic, non-TSC-related AMLs and PEComas. This suggests the possibility that mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin may be therapeutic for this class of disease. (+info
Side population cells isolated from mesenchymal neoplasms have tumor initiating potential.
Although many cancers are maintained by tumor-initiating cells, this has not been shown for mesenchymal tumors, in part due to the lack of unique surface markers that identify mesenchymal progenitors. An alternative technique to isolate stem-like cells is to isolate side population (SP) cells based on efflux of Hoechst 33342 dye. We examined 29 mesenchymal tumors ranging from benign to high-grade sarcomas and identified SP cells in all but six samples. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of SP cells and the grade of the tumor. SP cells preferentially formed tumors when grafted into immunodeficient mice, and only cells from tumors that developed from the SP cells had the ability to initiate tumor formation upon serial transplantation. Although SP cells are able to efflux rhodamine dye in addition to Hoechst 33342, we found that the ability to efflux rhodamine dye did not identify a population of cells enriched for tumor-initiating capacity. Here, we identify a subpopulation of cells within a broad range of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors with tumor-initiating capacity. In addition, our data suggest that the proportion of SP cells could be used as a prognostic factor and that therapeutically targeting this subpopulation of cells could be used to improve patient outcome. (+info