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(1/51) Metaplastic breast cancer: prognosis and response to systemic therapy.

BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare disease with little information available to guide therapy. The goals of this study were to describe the patient characteristics, systemic therapies and clinical outcomes of all patients with primary metaplastic breast cancer treated at Mayo Clinic between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified through the medical index of Mayo Clinic. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical record of each patient. A literature search using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT for the years 1966-1997 was performed to identify all previously reported case series in the English language containing 10 or more patients. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were identified with a median age at diagnosis of 59 years (range 39-90 years). The median tumor size was 3.4 cm (range 0.5-7.0 cm). One patient had metastatic disease at presentation. Twenty-three patients had information available on nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Twenty patients (87%) were node-negative and three patients (13%) were both ER and PR positive. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed for those who presented with local-regional disease. The three-year DFS was 40% (95% CI: 23%-73%) and the three-year OS was 71% (95% CI: 51%-97%). In univariate analysis, those patients 60 years of age or older at diagnosis were found to have an increased DFS (P = 0.011). Among those with prior estrogen use, both DFS (P = 0.022) and OS (P = 0.003) were decreased. Thirteen patients (50%) developed metastases with a median DFS time of 2.4 years. Ten different chemotherapy regimens were utilized for metastatic disease and one partial response was observed. There were no responses to tamoxifen in four patients with metastatic disease. Median survival after the development of metastases was eight months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite presenting more commonly as node-negative disease, DFS and OS in metaplastic breast cancer is decreased compared to typical adenocarcinomas. Systemic therapy also appears to be less effective. Patients with metaplastic breast cancer, particularly those with metastatic disease could be appropriate candidates for innovative therapeutic regimens.  (+info)

(2/51) Amphicrine tumor.

The term amphicrine refers to cells, and tumors, which show both exocrine and endocrine features. Author s aim was to analyse the characteristics of these neoplasms. 40 suspicious cases were reviewed. Mucin-stains (PAS, diastase-PAS, Stains-all, Alcian-blue), immunohistochemistry (antibodies against Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), and Chromogranin A (CGA), and electronmicroscopic studies were performed to demonstrate exocrine and/or endocrine features of the tumor cells. By means of these methods, 16 cases turned out to be amphicrine tumors. Among them, there were 4 sinonasal, 1 bronchial, 1 mediastinal, 8 gastrointestinal and 2 suprarenal gland neoplasms. In connection to the subject, a brief review is given of amphicrine tumor, regarding its etiological and pathological aspects. These tumors form a distinct clinicopathological entity and should be separated from both neuroendocrine tumors and adenocarcinomas.  (+info)

(3/51) Heterotopic endochondrial ossification with mixed tumor formation in C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice is associated with elevated TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 expression.

Transgenic mice which express the simian virus 40 large T-antigen (Tag) under the regulatory control of the hormone responsive rat C3(1) gene develop unusual lesions of heterotopic bone growth associated with mixed tumor formation arising from eccrine sweat glands found only in the foot pads of mice, ischiocavernosus muscle adjacent to bulbourethral glands and occasionally the salivary and mammary glands. These lesions are very similar to mixed tumors arising in several types of human cancers. Based upon electron microscopic examination and immunocytochemical analyses of cellular differentiation markers, the mixed proliferative lesions in this transgenic mouse model begin with the Tag-induced proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The proliferation of these two types of cells results in hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation of the epithelial component, whereas the proliferating myoepithelial cells undergo metaplasia to form chondrocytes which deposit extracellular matrix, including collagen fibers. Cartilage develops focally between areas of epithelial proliferation and subsequently ossifies through a process of endochondrial bone formation. The metaplasia of myoepithelial cells to chondrocytes appears to require the inductive interaction of factors produced by the closely associated proliferating epithelial cells, including members of the TGF-beta superfamily. We demonstrate that TGF-beta1 protein accumulates in the extracellular matrix of the lesions, whereas RNA in situ hybridization reveals that BMP-2, another strong inducer of heterotopic bone formation, is overexpressed by the proliferating epithelial cells during the development of ectopic bone. The formation of sarcomatous tumors within the mixed tumors appears to be androgen-dependent and more frequent in mice lacking a normal allele of p53. This process of cartilage and bone induction may mimic epithelial-mesenchymal interactions which occur during embryonic bone formation. These transgenic mice may provide new insights into the processes of ectopic endochondrial bone formation associated with mixed tumor formation and serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone disease.  (+info)

(4/51) Pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its metabolites SN-38 and APC in children with recurrent solid tumors after protracted low-dose irinotecan.

Irinotecan (IRN), a topoisomerase I interactive agent, has significant antitumor activity in early Phase I studies in children with recurrent solid tumors. However, the disposition of IRN and its metabolites, SN-38 and APC, in children has not been reported. Children with solid tumors refractory to conventional therapy received IRN by a 1-h i.v. infusion at either 20, 24, or 29 mg/m2 daily for 5 consecutive days for 2 weeks. Serial blood samples were collected after doses 1 and 10 of the first course. IRN, SN-38, and APC lactone concentrations were determined by an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography assay. A linear four-compartment model was fit simultaneously to the IRN, SN-38, and APC plasma concentration versus time data. Systemic clearance rate for IRN was 58.7 +/- 18.8 liters/h/m2 (mean +/- SD). The mean +/- SD ng/ml x h single-day lactone SN-38 area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-->6) was 90.9 +/- 96.4, 103.7 +/- 62.4, and 95.3 +/- 63.9 at IRN doses of 20, 24, and 29 mg/m2, respectively. The relative extent of IRN conversion to SN-38 and metabolism to APC measured after dose 1 were 0.49 +/- 0.33 and 0.29 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD). No statistically significant intrapatient difference was noted for SN-38 area under the concentration-time curve. Large interpatient variability in IRN and metabolite disposition was observed. The relative extent of conversion and the SN-38 systemic exposure achieved with this protracted schedule of administration were much greater than reported in adults or children receiving larger intermittent doses.  (+info)

(5/51) Mixed tumour of schwannoma and meningioma in a patient with neurofibromatosis-2 : a case report.

The co-existence of schwannoma and meningioma as a mixed intracranial tumour is uncommon and so far only eight cases have been published in the literature. Because of rarity, we report a unique case of mixed tumour having schwann cell and meningeal components, in a patient with neurofibromatosis type -2 (NF-2). The possible mechanisms for the occurrence of these mixed tumours are discussed.  (+info)

(6/51) Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 and bone morphogenetic protein receptors in myoepithelial cells of canine mammary gland tumors.

To study the ectopic chondrogenesis in canine mammary mixed tumors, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) and specific BMP receptors (BMPRs), BMPR-IA, BMPR-IB, and BMPR-II, was examined using immunohistochemical and immunoblot analysis in 39 canine mammary gland tumors. Immunohistochemically, BMP-6 and all three types of BMPRs were coexpressed in the myoepithelial cells and chondrocytes in six of eight benign mixed tumors. In complex adenomas, myoepithelial cells showed an expression pattern of BMP-6, BMPR-IA, and BMPR-II similar to those in benign mixed tumors, whereas immunoreactivity for BMPR-IB was very mild. The myoepithelial cells proliferating within the basement membrane showed more intense immunoreactivity for BMP-6 and all BMPRs as compared with those proliferating in the interstitial areas. Western blotting analysis revealed immunopositive bands at 40-45 kDa for BMP-6 in the samples from simple and complex adenomas and benign mixed tumors. The BMPR-IB-specific bands at 45 kDa were most detected in benign mixed tumors. Because among BMPRs, BMPR-IB is thought to be the major receptor for BMP-6 for primary chondrogenesis, these findings suggest that the expression of BMP and its receptors on the myoepithelial cells might play a role in the ectopic cartilage formation in canine mammary gland tumors, especially in benign mixed tumors.  (+info)

(7/51) Ectomesenchymoma: case report and review of the literature.

Ectomesenchymoma (EMCH) is a rare tumor that may arise in the brain or soft tissue. This tumor type is defined as a form including ectodermal components represented by neuroblasts or ganglion cells and differentiated mesenchymal structures of various types. The mesenchymal component is most often a rhabdomyosarcoma, but liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, leiomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, and osseous elements have also been recorded. We report a case of an abdominal malignant ectomesenchymoma, containing three components, schwannoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and ganglion cells, in a four-month-old infant. We also review 43 previously reported cases.  (+info)

(8/51) Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater with glandular differentiation.

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is extremely rare. A 55 year old woman presented with an ampullary tumour causing pancreaticobiliary obstruction and a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Microscopically, the tumour was diagnosed as a CD117 positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with glandular differentiation. Four months later the patient developed a general recurrence. The metastatic tumours showed CD117 negativity and pure neuroendocrine features. The patient died of disease six months after diagnosis. It is postulated that the two components originated from a common multipotential stem cell. The clinical behaviour of ampullary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas appears to be highly aggressive, with early metastases and a fatal outcome.  (+info)