(1/16) 15-Lipoxygenase-2 expression in benign and neoplastic sebaceous glands and other cutaneous adnexa.
15-Lipoxygenase-2 has a limited tissue distribution in epithelial tissues, with mRNA detected in skin, cornea, lung, and prostate. It was originally cloned from human hair rootlets. In this study the distribution of 15-lipoxygenase-2 was characterized in human skin using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Strong uniform 15-lipoxygenase-2 in situ hybridization (n = 6) and immunostaining (n = 16) were observed in benign cutaneous sebaceous glands, with expression in differentiated secretory cells. Strong 15-lipoxygenase-2 immunostaining was also observed in secretory cells of apocrine and eccrine glands. Variable reduced immunostaining was observed in skin-derived sebaceous neoplasms (n = 8). In the eyelid, Meibomian glands were uniformly negative for 15-lipoxygenase-2 in all cases examined (n = 9), and sebaceous carcinomas apparently derived from Meibomian glands were also negative (n = 12). The mechanisms responsible for differential expression in cutaneous sebaceous vs eyelid Meibomian glands remain to be established. In epidermis, positive immunostaining was observed in the basal cell layer in normal skin, whereas five examined basal cell carcinomas were negative. Thus, the strongest 15-lipoxygenase-2 expression is in the androgen regulated secretory cells of sebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine glands. This compares with the prostate, in which 15-lipoxygenase-2 is expressed in differentiated prostate secretory cells (and reduced in the majority of prostate adenocarcinomas). The product of 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, may be a ligand for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, which is expressed in sebocytes, and contribute to secretory differentiation in androgen regulated tissues such as prostate and sebaceous glands. (+info)
(2/16) No evidence of deregulated patched-hedgehog signaling pathway in trichoblastomas and other tumors arising within nevus sebaceous.
Nevus sebaceous is a congenital malformation of the skin within which a number of neoplasms showing adnexal differentiation may arise. Recently, deletions in the patched gene region were reported in nevus sebaceous and constitutive activation of the patched-hedgehog signaling pathway was implicated in the development of tumors arising within nevus sebaceous. To substantiate further a role of the patched-hedgehog signaling pathway in secondary tumors arising within nevus sebaceous, we examined 11 nevus sebaceous associated with secondary tumors for loss of heterozygosity of the patched gene region by microsatellite polymerase chain reaction and patched mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. Unexpectedly, however, none of the tumors (including eight trichoblastomas) and nevus sebaceous lesions showed loss of heterozygosity at any polymorphic loci close to the patched gene. Further more, none of the nevus sebaceous lesions and secondary tumors gave detectable signals for patched mRNA. In contrast, four of 11 sporadic basal cell carcinomas, that were examined for comparison, showed loss of heterozygosity at the patched gene locus (p <0.05), and moderate to strong signals for patched mRNA was observed in all seven basal cell carcinoma tumors examined (p <0.0001). Additional investigation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in four basal cell carcinomas and two nevus sebaceous tumors also showed the expression of Gli-1, another target gene in the patched-hedgehog signaling pathway, in all the basal cell carcinomas samples but not in any of the nevus sebaceous tumors examined. The findings in this study do not support the view that the deregulation of the patched-hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of nevus sebaceous and associated tumors, and show that, although morphologically similar, trichoblastomas and basal cell carcinomas have a different molecular pathogenesis. (+info)
(3/16) Mouse models for human hair loss disorders.
The outer surface of the hand, limb and body is covered by the epidermis, which is elaborated into a number of specialized appendages, evolved not only to protect and reinforce the skin but also for social signalling. The most prominent of these appendages is the hair follicle. Hair follicles are remarkable because of their prolific growth characteristics and their complexity of differentiation. After initial embryonic morphogenesis, the hair follicle undergoes repeated cycles of regression and regeneration throughout the lifetime of the organism. Studies of mouse mutants with hair loss phenotypes have suggested that the mechanisms controlling the hair cycle probably involve many of the major signalling molecules used elsewhere in development, although the complete pathway of hair follicle growth control is not yet understood. Mouse studies have also led to the discovery of genes underlying several human disorders. Future studies of mouse hair-loss mutants are likely to benefit the understanding of human hair loss as well as increasing our knowledge of mechanisms controlling morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. (+info)
(4/16) Her-2 expression in cutaneous eccrine and apocrine neoplasms.
Cutaneous eccrine and apocrine glands have many histologic and immunologic similarities to ducts and acini of the breast. Thus, differentiating a primary cutaneous process from a metastatic breast carcinoma can be nearly impossible. In all, 10-34% of breast carcinomas overexpress HER-2 protein, a membrane-associated protein that functions in cell differentiation, adhesion and motility. As expression of this gene in cutaneous neoplasms has not been well characterized, we sought to determine HER-2 expression in a sample of benign and malignant cutaneous eccrine and apocrine neoplasms and to determine if there is value in using this protein expression in differentiating primary cutaneous from metastatic breast lesions. Totally, 85 primary cutaneous neoplasms and 11 cutaneous metastases from HER-2-positive breast carcinomas were retrieved from archived material at our institute. All cases were evaluated for HER-2 protein expression using the Dako Hercept Test kit. Membranous HER-2 staining was noted in three of the 85 cutaneous adnexal neoplasms: one hidrocystoma and two nodular hidradenomas. Seven of the 11 cutaneous metastases from HER-2-positive breast carcinomas maintained moderate-to-strong HER-2 expression. In conclusion, while 10-34% of breast carcinomas overexpress the HER-2 protein, only 3.5% of cutaneous apocrine and eccrine neoplasms in this study stained with the HER-2 antibody. These HER-2-positive cutaneous neoplasms typically do not pose a diagnostic dilemma in the setting of differentiation from breast metastasis. Additionally, although histologically these breast and cutaneous lesions may have morphologic similarities, the relative lack of HER-2 overexpression suggests that they are different nosologically. Finally, this study suggests that HER-2 protein expression can be a useful tool in differentiating a primary cutaneous appendageal neoplasm from HER-2 expressing metastatic breast carcinoma. (+info)
(5/16) Expression of p63 in primary cutaneous adnexal neoplasms and adenocarcinoma metastatic to the skin.
p63, a recently identified homologue of the p53 gene, has been reported to be essential in the development of epithelia and is mainly expressed by basal and myoepithelial cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of p63 expression in cutaneous adnexal neoplasms and to assess its possible value in the differential diagnosis of primary cutaneous neoplasms vs adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin. Immunohistochemical analysis for p63 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue from 20 benign adnexal tumors, 10 malignant adnexal tumors and 14 adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin. The expression of p63 was evaluated in epidermal cells, skin appendages and metastatic tumor cells. p63 was consistently expressed in the basal and suprabasal cells of epidermis and cutaneous appendages, including the basal/myoepithelial cells of sweat glands. Out of 20 benign adnexal tumors, 13 (65%) showed strong (score 3) p63 expression; the remaining seven (35%) cases had score 2. All primary cutaneous carcinomas, including adenocarcinomas, expressed p63. In contrast, none of the metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin was positive for p63 (P<0.001). Based on our findings, analysis of p63 expression may help in the differential diagnosis of primary vs metastatic cutaneous adenocarcinomas. (+info)
(6/16) Skin adnexal neoplasms--part 2: an approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands.
Tumours of cutaneous sweat glands are uncommon, with a wide histological spectrum, complex classification and many different terms often used to describe the same tumour. Furthermore, many eccrine/apocrine lesions coexist within hamartomas or within lesions with composite/mixed differentiation. In addition to the eccrine and apocrine glands, two other skin sweat glands have recently been described: the apoeccrine and the mammary-like glands of the anogenital area. In this review (the second of two articles on skin adnexal neoplasms), common as well as important benign and malignant lesions of cutaneous sweat glands are described, and a summary for differentiating primary adnexal neoplasms from metastatic carcinoma is outlined, striving to maintain a common and acceptable terminology in this complex subject. Composite/mixed adnexal tumours are also discussed briefly. (+info)
(7/16) Skin adnexal neoplasms--part 1: an approach to tumours of the pilosebaceous unit.
Skin adnexal neoplasms comprise a wide spectrum of benign and malignant tumours that exhibit morphological differentiation towards one or more types of adnexal structures found in normal skin. Most adnexal neoplasms are relatively uncommonly encountered in routine practice, and pathologists can recognise a limited number of frequently encountered tumours. In this review, the first of two, the normal histology of the skin adnexal structures is reviewed, and the histological features of selected but important benign and malignant tumours and tumour-like lesions of pilosebaceous origin discussed, with emphasis on the diagnostic approach and pitfalls in histological diagnosis. (+info)
(8/16) Immunohistochemical studies on cytokeratin 8 and 18 expressions in canine cutaneous adnexus and their tumors.
The expressions of cytokeratin 8 and 18 (CK8 and CK18) in the normal canine skin (2 cases) and cutaneous adnexal tumors (127 cases) were investigated immunohistochemically. In the normal skin, co-expression of CK8/18 was found in the glandular epithelium of apocrine sweat glands, and single CK8-immunoreactivity was detected occasionally in the external root sheath at the isthmus and suprabulbar regions of the hair follicles. Neoplastic glandular epithelial cells in all apocrine gland tumors (21/21 cases, 100%) had co-expression of CK8/18. In trichoblastomas (27/28 cases, 96%), most neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for CK8, but those were negative for CK18. Single CK8-expression was also observed in basaloid neoplastic cells in several cases of trichoepitheliomas (7/19 cases, 37%) and pilomatricoma (1/7 cases, 14%). In several cases of trichoblastomas (4/28 cases, 14%) and trichoepitheliomas (2/19 cases, 11%), tumor cells forming glandular structures had co-expression of CK8/18. There were no positive reactions for both CK8 and 18 in infundibular keratinizing acanthomas, and sebaceous and hepatoid gland tumors. The present findings indicate that co-expression of CK8/18 is a specific feature of apocrine sweat glands and single CK8-expression represents the natures of external root sheath or pluripotential stem cells. Thus, the combination of CK8- and 18-immunostainings may have the utility to confirm the directions of differentiation in canine cutaneous adnexal tumors providing a reliable hallmark for histopathological diagnoses. (+info)