Intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of re-resection, transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE), or percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) in selected patients with intrahepatic recurrent HCC. The overall results of a treatment strategy combining these modalities have not been fully evaluated, and the prognostic factors determining survival in these patients remain to be clarified. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-four patients who underwent curative resection for HCC were followed for intrahepatic recurrence, which was treated aggressively with a strategy including different modalities. Survival results after recurrence and from initial hepatectomy were analyzed, and prognostic factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using 27 clinicopathologic variables. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients (43%) with intrahepatic recurrence were treated with re-resection (11), TOCE (71), PEIT (6), systemic chemotherapy (8) or conservatively (9). The overall 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates from the time of recurrence were 65.5%, 34.9%, and 19.7%, respectively, and from the time of initial hepatectomy were 78.4%, 47.2%, and 30.9%, respectively. The re-resection group had the best survival, followed by the TOCE group. Multivariate analysis revealed Child's B or C grading, serum albumin < or = 40 g/l, multiple recurrent tumors, recurrence < or = 1 year after hepatectomy, and concurrent extrahepatic recurrence to be independent adverse prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive treatment with a multimodality strategy could result in prolonged survival in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection for HCC. Prognosis was determined by the liver function status, interval to recurrence, number of recurrent tumors, any concurrent extrahepatic recurrence, and type of treatment. (+info)
Surgery-related factors and local recurrence of Wilms tumor in National Wilms Tumor Study 4.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic factors for local recurrence in Wilms tumor. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Current therapy for Wilms tumor has evolved through four studies of the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. As adverse prognostic factors were identified, treatment of children with Wilms tumor has been tailored based on these factors. Two-year relapse-free survival of children in the fourth study (NWTS-4) exceeded 91%. Factors once of prognostic import for local recurrence may lose their significance as more effective therapeutic regimens are devised. METHODS: Children evaluated were drawn from the records of NWTS-4. A total of 2482 randomized or followed patients were identified. Local recurrence, defined as recurrence in the original tumor bed, retroperitoneum, or within the abdominal cavity or pelvis, occurred in 100 children. Using a nested case-control study design, 182 matched controls were selected. Factors were analyzed for their association with local failure. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, taking into account the matching. RESULTS: The largest relative risks for local recurrence were observed in patients with stage III disease, those with unfavorable histology (especially diffuse anaplasia), and those reported to have tumor spillage during surgery. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for the combined effects of histology, lymph node involvement, and age revealed that tumor spillage remained significant. The relative risk of local recurrence from spill was largest in children with stage II disease. The absence of lymph node biopsy was also associated with an increased relative risk of recurrence, which was largest in children with stage I disease. The survival of children after local recurrence is poor, with an average survival rate at 2 years after relapse of 43%. Survival was dependent on initial stage: those who received more therapy before relapse had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that surgical rupture of the tumor must be prevented by the surgeon, because spills produce an increased risk of local relapse. Both local and diffuse spills produce this risk. Stage II children with local spill appear to require more aggressive therapy than that used in NWTS-4. The continued critical importance of lymph node sampling in conjunction with nephrectomy for Wilms tumor is also established. Absence of lymph node biopsy may result in understaging and inadequate treatment of the child and may produce an increased risk of local recurrence. (+info)
Second-line treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma.
Failure after first-line treatment was reported in 35-60% of immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). There are currently no reports focusing on salvage therapy. This review analyses prognostic factors and the efficacy of salvage therapy by focusing on data from papers reporting results of first-line treatment in 355 cases. The study group consisted of 173 patients presenting treatment failure. The interval between failure and death (TTD) was compared for age at relapse (< or =60 vs. >60 years), type of failure (relapse vs. progression), time to relapse (< or =12 vs. >12 months) and salvage treatment (yes vs no). Median TTD was similar in younger and older patients (P = 0.09). Relapsed patients had a longer TTD than patients with progressive disease (P = 0.002). Early relapse led to a shorter TTD than late relapse (P = 0.005). Median TTD was 14 months for patients who underwent salvage therapy and 2 months for untreated cases (P<0.00001). A multivariate analysis showed an independent prognostic role for salvage therapy and time to relapse. Age and type of failure had no predictive value. Salvage therapy significantly improves outcome and, possibly, quality of life. As many different treatments were used conclusions cannot be made regarding an optimal treatment schedule. (+info)
Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer.
Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome. (+info)
Clinical significance of circulating anti-p53 antibodies in European patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
p53 alterations are considered to be predictive of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may induce a humoral response. Anti-p53 serum antibodies were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified recombinant human p53 on 130 European HCC patients before treatment and during the clinical course of the disease. p53 immunohistochemistry was performed on tumours from the 52 patients who underwent surgery, and DNA sequencing analysis was initiated when circulating anti-p53 antibodies were detected. Nine (7%) HCC patients had anti-p53 serum antibodies before treatment. During a mean period of 30 months of follow-up, all the negative patients remained negative, even when recurrence was observed. Of the nine positive patients, eight were still positive 12-30 months after surgery. The presence of anti-p53 serum antibodies was correlated neither with mutation of the p53 gene nor the serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the tumours. However, a greater incidence of vascular invasion and accumulation of p53 protein were observed in the tumours of these patients (P<0.03 and P<0.01 respectively) as well as a better survival rate without recurrence (P = 0.05). In conclusion, as was recently shown in pancreatic cancer, anti-p53 serum antibodies may constitute a marker of relative 'good prognosis' in a subgroup of patients exhibiting one or several markers traditionally thought to be of bad prognosis. (+info)
Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma.
We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Lauren and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with >72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma. (+info)
Phase I study of eniluracil, a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inactivator, and oral 5-fluorouracil with radiation therapy in patients with recurrent or advanced head and neck cancer.
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an effective enhancer of radiation therapy (RT) in head and neck cancers. Due to rapid, predominantly hepatic metabolism by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and suggested clinical benefit from prolonged drug exposure, 5-FU is commonly given by continuous infusion. Eniluracil is a novel DPD-inactivator designed to prolong the half-life of 5-FU and provide sustained plasma concentrations of 5-FU with oral dosing. We conducted a Phase I study of the safety and efficacy of eniluracil given with oral 5-FU in patients receiving concurrent RT for recurrent or advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Thirteen patients with recurrent, metastatic, or high-risk (defined as an expected 2-year survival rate of <10%) head and neck cancer were enrolled and treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy on an every-other-week schedule. Eniluracil at a fixed dose [20 mg twice a day (BID)] was given for 7 consecutive days (days 1-7). 5-FU and RT were given on 5 consecutive days (days 2-6). One patient was treated with once-daily RT (2.0 Gy fractions). The remaining patients received hyperfractionated RT (1.5-Gy fractions BID). The initial dose of 5-FU was 2.5 mg/m2 given BID. Dose escalation in patient cohorts was scheduled at 2.5-mg/m2 increments, with intrapatient dose escalation permitted. Lymphocyte DPD activity and serum 5-FU and uracil concentrations were monitored during two cycles. DPD activity was completely or nearly completely inactivated in all patients. Sustained, presumed therapeutic concentrations of 5-FU were observed at a dose of 5.0 mg/m2 given BID. Cumulative dose-limiting myelosuppression (both neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) was observed during the fourth and fifth cycles following administration of 5.0 mg/m2 5-FU BID. One patient died of neutropenic sepsis during cycle 4. Other late cycle toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, and mucositis. Grade 3 mucositis was observed in 4 patients, but no grade 4 mucositis or grade 3 or 4 dermatitis was observed. A second patient death occurred during cycle 1 of treatment. No specific cause of death was identified. The study was subsequently discontinued. Cumulative myelosupression was the significant dose-limiting toxicity of oral 5-FU given with the DPD-inactivator eniluracil on an every-other-week schedule. Clinical radiation sensitization was not observed, based on the absence of dose-limiting mucositis and dermatitis. Alternative dosing schedules need to be examined to determine the most appropriate use of eniluracil and 5-FU as radiation enhancers. (+info)
Apoptosis during breast carcinoma progression.
The purpose of this study was to investigate apoptosis, proliferation, and the expression of apoptosis-influencing proteins bcl-2 and bax and estrogen and progesterone receptors during breast carcinoma progression. The material consisted of 53 paired breast carcinoma samples representing primary and recurrent tumors and 24 control samples. The recurrent sample was located either in the breast scar tissue or at a distant metastatic site. Apoptosis was detected both morphologically and by 3' end labeling of fragmented DNA. Cell proliferation was evaluated immunohistochemically by the MIB index. The expressions of bcl-2, bax, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were studied immunohistochemically. There was a significant increase in the extent of apoptosis and proliferation in recurrent tumors compared to the primary lesions (P = 0.015 and P = 0.038, respectively). In primary tumors with an apoptotic index of >0.50%, the survival of the patients was significantly shorter (P = 0.015). In cases with a significant increase in apoptosis or proliferation in the recurrent tumor, the survival of the patients was significantly shorter (P = 0.009 and P = 0.003, respectively). Of the variables analyzed, bcl-2 expression and a positive estrogen receptor status were significantly associated with a low extent of apoptosis (P = 0.010 and P = 0.042, respectively). Their changes were parallel to the changes in apoptosis during tumor progression, although the associations did not reach statistical significance. The results show that increased apoptosis is associated with a worse prognosis in breast carcinoma. A significant increase in apoptosis in recurrent breast carcinoma lesions predicts a worse clinical outcome. (+info)