(1/1018) An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids.

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

(2/1018) Randomised controlled trial of budesonide for the prevention of post-bronchiolitis wheezing.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that recurrent episodes of coughing and wheezing occur in up to 75% of infants after acute viral bronchiolitis. AIM: To assess the efficacy of budesonide given by means of a metered dose inhaler, spacer, and face mask in reducing the incidence of coughing and wheezing episodes up to 12 months after acute viral bronchiolitis. METHODS: Children under the age of 12 months admitted to hospital with acute viral bronchiolitis were randomised to receive either budesonide or placebo (200 microg or one puff twice daily) for the next eight weeks. Parents kept a diary card record of all episodes of coughing and wheezing over the next 12 months. RESULTS: Full follow up data were collected for 49 infants. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for the number of infants with symptom episodes up to six months after hospital discharge. At 12 months, 21 infants in the budesonide group had symptom episodes compared with 12 of 24 in the placebo group. The median number of symptom episodes was 2 (range, 0-13) in those who received budesonide and 1 (range, 0-11) in those who received placebo. Because there is no pharmacological explanation for these results, they are likely to be caused by a type 1 error, possibly exacerbated by there being more boys in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: Routine administration of budesonide by means of a metered dose inhaler, spacer, and face mask system immediately after acute viral bronchiolitis cannot be recommended.  (+info)

(3/1018) Improvement of nebulised antibiotic delivery in cystic fibrosis.

AIM: To investigate deposition patterns and to assess the delivery rate of two nebuliser systems in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Thirty three children with CF on regular treatment with nebulised antibiotics had radioisotope scans performed using technetium-99m labelled aerosol antibiotic generated by a Ventstream nebuliser (median mass diameter (MMD), 3.3 microm; delivery rate, 0. 075 ml/min) under conditions similar to their routine home practice. The inhomogeneity of the images was scored on a 1-10 rating scale (a low score indicating even distribution of the antibiotic), and stomach deposition was measured as a percentage of overall deposition. Twenty patients had a repeat scan using an Optimist nebuliser (MMD, 1.8 microm; delivery rate, 0.02 ml/min). RESULTS: The mean inhomogeneity scores were 5.4 in the Ventstream group and 3. 5 in the Optimist group. Mean stomach deposition was 17.3% in the 33 patients using the Ventstream nebuliser. There was an inverse relation between height and stomach deposition (r = 0.69). In the 20 patients who had both nebulisers, the mean percentages of stomach deposition for the Ventstream and Optimist nebulisers were 11.8% and 1.6%, respectively. The Ventstream nebuliser delivered antibiotic at an average 2.8 times faster rate than the Optimist nebuliser. IMPLICATIONS: A smaller particle size results in a more homogenous distribution of the antibiotic in the lungs with decreased stomach deposition. This should not be seen as a recommendation to use the Optimist nebuliser because more antibiotic was delivered to most parts of the lung with the Ventstream because of its increased delivery rate.  (+info)

(4/1018) Early use of inhaled nedocromil sodium in children following an acute episode of asthma.

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines on the treatment of childhood asthma recommend the introduction of an anti-inflammatory drug in children who have persistent symptoms and require regular treatment with a bronchodilator. The efficacy and safety of inhaled nedocromil sodium (Tilade Mint aerosol) administered using a Fisonair spacer at a dose of 4 mg three times daily was compared with placebo in the treatment of asthmatic children aged 6-12 years who are symptomatic and recovering from an acute exacerbation of asthma. METHODS: A group comparative, double blind, placebo controlled trial was performed in children who were recovering from an acute episode of asthma following treatment in the emergency department of the hospital or in children referred from their general practitioner following a wheezing episode and documented evidence of at least two previous episodes of wheezing. A two week baseline period on existing bronchodilator treatment was followed by a 12 week treatment period on either nedocromil sodium (2 mg/puff) or placebo. Both treatments were administered using a Fisonair spacer at a dose of two puffs three times daily. Changes from baseline values in daytime asthma and night time asthma symptom scores, usage of rescue bronchodilators, mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) recorded twice daily on diary cards, patients' opinion of treatment, and withdrawals due to treatment failure were measured during the primary treatment period (last six weeks of treatment). RESULTS: One hundred and forty two children aged 6-12 years entered the baseline period. Sixty three were withdrawn due to failure to meet the entry criteria (18) or the criteria for asthma symptom severity (15) or reversibility (9), because they developed uncontrolled asthma (2), because they took disallowed treatment (2), or for other non-trial related reasons (17). Seventy nine patients (46 boys) of mean age 8. 8 years entered the treatment period. There were significant differences in the changes from baseline values during the last six weeks of treatment in favour of nedocromil sodium compared with placebo in the primary variables of daytime asthma and night time asthma, morning and evening PEF, and the usage of rescue inhaled bronchodilators; 53% of patients reported nedocromil sodium to be very or moderately effective compared with 44% placebo. Improvement in asthma symptoms, PEF, and reduction in use of rescue bronchodilators did not reach statistical significance until after six weeks of treatment. Twenty two patients were withdrawn or dropped out during the treatment phase, 12 due to uncontrolled asthma or persistence of asthma symptoms, four due to suspected adverse drug reactions (nedocromil sodium 3 (headaches 2, angio-oedema/urticaria 1), placebo 1(persistent cough)), and six due to non-treatment related reasons. Seventy one adverse events were reported by 27 patients in the nedocromil group and 75 by 30 patients in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma symptoms, use of bronchodilators, and lung function can be improved significantly in children recovering from an acute exacerbation of asthma or wheeze and currently receiving treatment with bronchodilators alone by the addition of inhaled nedocromil sodium at a dose of 4 mg three times daily administered using a Fisonair holding chamber.  (+info)

(5/1018) Long-term management of asthma: how to improve outcomes.

Improved clinical outcomes in asthma patients have been demonstrated in several clinical trials that applied the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for the long-term management of asthma. Environmental control, objective monitoring, drug therapy, and partnership in patient education are the major components of optimal management. Inhaled antiinflammatory agents are of major importance for long-term control in patients with persistent asthma. Adequate patient education is absolutely essential for excellent, cost-effective care of patients with asthma. Improved outcomes in adults with asthma have been demonstrated at clinics initiated and managed by pharmacists. Further trials are needed with large numbers of patients in managed care organizations.  (+info)

(6/1018) Comparison of spontaneous and induced sputum for investigation of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

BACKGROUND: Although sputum induction is used as a technique to investigate lower airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects, advantages over spontaneous sputum in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been investigated. METHODS: Samples of spontaneous sputum and sputum induced with 3% hypertonic saline for 14 minutes were collected from 27 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who usually produced spontaneous sputum. Spirometric indices and oxygen saturation (Sao2) were measured at seven minute intervals. The spontaneous, seven and 14 minute sputum samples were analysed for total and differential cell counts, cell viability, and interleukin 8 levels. RESULTS: Analysis of the sputum revealed that median cell viability was higher in the seven minute (62.8%; p = 0.004) and 14 minute (65%; p = 0.001) induced sputum samples than in spontaneous sputum (41.2%). There was no significant difference in total and differential cell counts or in interleukin 8 levels between spontaneous and induced sputum. During the sputum induction procedure the mean (SD) fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 0.098 (0.111) 1 (p < 0.001) and in forced vital capacity (FVC) was 0.247 (0.233) 1 (p < 0.001). There was a small but significant fall in Sao2 during sputum induction (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Induced sputum contains a higher proportion of viable cells than spontaneous sputum. There are no significant differences between the sputum samples obtained at seven minutes and at 14 minutes of hypertonic saline nebulisation. Sputum induction is safe and well tolerated in patients with COPD.  (+info)

(7/1018) Airway hyperresponsiveness to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in subjects with tetraplegia.

The majority of otherwise healthy subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrate airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine or histamine. The present study was performed to determine whether ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) induces airway hyperresponsiveness and to further elucidate potential mechanisms in this population. Fifteen subjects with SCI, nine with tetraplegia (C4-7) and six with paraplegia (T9-L1), were initially exposed to UNDW for 30 s; spirometry was performed immediately and again 2 min after exposure. The challenge continued by progressively increasing exposure time until the forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased 20% or more from baseline (PD20) or the maximal exposure time was reached. Five subjects responding to UNDW returned for a second challenge 30 min after inhalation of aerosolized ipratropium bromide (2.5 ml of a 0.6% solution). Eight of nine subjects with tetraplegia had significant bronchoconstrictor responses to UNDW (geometric mean PD20 = 7.76 +/- 7.67 ml), whereas none with paraplegia demonstrated a response (geometric mean PD20 = 24 ml). Five of the subjects with tetraplegia who initially responded to distilled water (geometric mean PD20 = 5.99 +/- 4.47 ml) were not responsive after pretreatment with ipratropium bromide (geometric mean PD20 = 24 ml). Findings that subjects with tetraplegia are hyperreactive to UNDW, a physicochemical agent, combined with previous observations of hyperreactivity to methacholine and histamine, suggest that overall airway hyperresponsiveness in these individuals is a nonspecific phenomenon similar to that observed in patients with asthma. The ability of ipratropium bromide to completely block UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction suggests that, in part, airway hyperresponsiveness in subjects with tetraplegia represents unopposed parasympathetic activity.  (+info)

(8/1018) Systemic activity of inhaled and swallowed beclomethasone dipropionate and the effect of different inhaler devices.

Inhaled glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone dipropionate, which are used in the treatment of asthma, may be associated with systemic adverse effects. To determine whether any systemic absorption following the inhalation of beclomethasone was a result of drug being absorbed from the lung (inhaled fraction) or the gastrointestinal tract (swallowed fraction), we studied normal subjects after the inhalation or swallowing of 2 mg beclomethasone dipropionate. Systemic activity was assessed using early morning cortisol suppression. Both inhaled and swallowed fractions produced significant systemic activity, the degree of which depended on the inhaler device used. Systemic activity was greater using a dry powder inhaler (52%) than using a metered dose inhaler with a large volume spacer (28%). These findings suggest that to limit potential adverse effects from high-dose beclomethasone dipropionate it is better to use a metered dose aerosol with large volume spacer than a dry powder.  (+info)