Prevalence and clinical significance of postpartum endometritis and wound infection.
OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinical variables (gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean sections, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, postpartum anemia, Apgar score < or = 3 at 1 minute and < or = 7 at 5 minutes, and instrumental delivery) with postpartum endometritis (PPE) and wound infection. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of the outcome of 75,947 term and preterm singleton deliveries; vaginally and by cesarean section from 1989-1997. RESULTS: The prevalence of PPE after vaginal deliveries was 0.17% (120/68,273). Gestational age of less than 37 weeks, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, instrumental deliveries, neonatal mortality, postpartum anemia, and Apgar scores of < 7 after 5 minutes were significantly associated with PPE. Gestational diabetes and an Apgar score of < 3 after 1 minute showed similar frequency with and without PPE. The prevalence of PPE after cesarean section was 2.63% (202/7,677). Preterm cesarean sections, history of previous cesarean sections, anemia, and low Apgar scores were seen more frequently with PPE than without. The incidence of cesarean delivery with gestational diabetes mellitus, fetal distress, and perinatal mortality was similar in presence and absence of PPE. The rate of wound infection after cesarean section was 3.97% (318/7,995). Gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean deliveries, and low Apgar scores were significantly more frequent with than without wound infection. Gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, and postpartum anemia were not associated with wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the aforementioned associations may prevent and shorten hospital stay by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. (+info)
Risk factors for the increasing trend in low birth weight among live births born by vaginal delivery, Brazil.
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for low birth weight (LBW) among live births by vaginal delivery and to determine if the disappearance of the association between LBW and socioeconomic factors was due to confounding by cesarean section. METHODS: Data were obtained from two population-based cohorts of singleton live births in Ribeirao Preto, Southeastern Brazil. The first one comprised 4,698 newborns from June 1978 to May 1979 and the second included 1,399 infants born from May to August 1994. The risks for LBW were tested in a logistic model, including the interaction of the year of survey and all independent variables under analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of LBW among vaginal deliveries increased from 7.8% in 1978--79 to 10% in 1994. The risk was higher for: female or preterm infants; newborns of non-cohabiting mothers; newborns whose mothers had fewer prenatal visits or few years of education; first-born infants; and those who had smoking mothers. The interaction of the year of survey with gestational age indicated that the risk of LBW among preterm infants fell from 17.75 to 8.71 in 15 years. The mean birth weight decreased more significantly among newborns from qualified families, who also had the highest increase in preterm birth and non-cohabitation. CONCLUSIONS: LBW among vaginal deliveries increased mainly due to a rise in the proportion of preterm births and non-cohabiting mothers. The association between cesarean section and LBW tended to cover up socioeconomic differences in the likelihood of LBW. When vaginal deliveries were analyzed independently, these socioeconomic differences come up again. (+info)
Holistic obstetrics: the origins of "natural childbirth" in Britain.
The term "natural childbirth" denotes an approach to childbirth characterised by a bias towards physical and mental hygiene in the management of pregnancy and labour. It emerged in Britain in the interwar period, partly as a response to the growing interventionism of mainstream obstetrics. Its appeal since then has rested on the belief that it could provide a holistic approach to maternity care, capable of addressing the needs of the "whole" patient. At the same time, "natural childbirth" has provided a means of expressing anxieties about the social, economic and political upheavals of the 20th century. This paper explores this complex set of beliefs and practices by examining the ideas of some British pioneers. (+info)
Home deliveries in Holland. Dutch maternity care and home confinements.
In the Netherlands a majority of all deliveries take place at home. The perinatal mortality rate is better than that reported from the United ffiingdom, probably because obstetric care in hospital is more active and aggressive. Dutch midwives play an important role and the specially trained home helps are most successful. I believe that, provided case selection is rigorous, many women are best delivered at home. (+info)
Trends in the modes of delivery and their impact on perinatal mortality rates.
OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the incidence of vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and forceps deliveries and their potential association with fetal, early neonatal, and perinatal mortality rates over time. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out and the occurrence of deliveries supervised by university services between January 1991 and December 2000 was determined. Data regarding fetal, early neonatal, and perinatal deaths were assessed using obstetric and pediatric records and autopsy reports. RESULTS: Of a total of 33,360 deliveries, the incidence of vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and forceps deliveries was relatively steady (around 60, 30, and 10%, respectively) while, at the same time, there was a marked reduction in fetal mortality (from 33.3 to 13.0 per thousand), early neonatal mortality (from 30.6 to 9.0 per thousand), and perinatal mortality (from 56.4 to 19.3 per thousand). CONCLUSIONS: The marked reduction in perinatal mortality rates seen during the study period without an increase in cesarean sections indicates that the decrease in perinatal mortality was not impacted by cesarean section rates. The plausible hypothesis seems to be that the reduction in perinatal mortality of deliveries performed under the supervision of university services was more likely to be associated with better neonatal care rather than the mode of delivery. (+info)
Vaginal delivery of dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins: case report and literature review.
After an unsuccessful midwife-assisted delivery in which a head was born but delivery could not be advanced, episiotomy performed at Sanliurfa Maternity Hospital allowed vaginal delivery of female conjoined twins. Visual and x-ray examination showed two heads, two vertebral columns, two feet, two arms, and fusion at the level of the pelvis. The baby was born dead, but the mother made an uneventful recovery. Parapagus (anterolaterally joined) dicephalus (two-headed) twins account for only 11-13% of all conjoined twins, and they rarely survive. Complex malformations of hearts, lungs and abdominal organs, duplication of the tracheae, upper gastrointestinal tract and spinal column, and either double or single versions of other organs have been reported in parapagus dicephalus cases. The incidence, anatomical, embryological, diagnostic, prognostic, obstetrical, perinatal, and ethical aspects of conjoined twins are reviewed, with a focus on parapagus dicephalus conjoined twins. (+info)
Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term.
BACKGROUND: The rate of elective primary cesarean delivery continues to rise, owing in part to the widespread perception that the procedure is of little or no risk to healthy women. METHODS: Using the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database, we carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all women in Canada (excluding Quebec and Manitoba) who delivered from April 1991 through March 2005. Healthy women who underwent a primary cesarean delivery for breech presentation constituted a surrogate "planned cesarean group" considered to have undergone low-risk elective cesarean delivery, for comparison with an otherwise similar group of women who had planned to deliver vaginally. RESULTS: The planned cesarean group comprised 46,766 women v. 2,292,420 in the planned vaginal delivery group; overall rates of severe morbidity for the entire 14-year period were 27.3 and 9.0, respectively, per 1000 deliveries. The planned cesarean group had increased postpartum risks of cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1-6.3), wound hematoma (OR 5.1, 95% CI 4.6-5.5), hysterectomy (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.2-4.8), major puerperal infection (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.7-3.4), anesthetic complications (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.0-2.6), venous thromboembolism (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.2) and hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8), and stayed in hospital longer (adjusted mean difference 1.47 d, 95% CI 1.46-1.49 d) than those in the planned vaginal delivery group, but a lower risk of hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). Absolute risk increases in severe maternal morbidity rates were low (e.g., for postpartum cardiac arrest, the increase with planned cesarean delivery was 1.6 per 1000 deliveries, 95% CI 1.2-2.1). The difference in the rate of in-hospital maternal death between the 2 groups was nonsignificant (p = 0.87). INTERPRETATION: Although the absolute difference is small, the risks of severe maternal morbidity associated with planned cesarean delivery are higher than those associated with planned vaginal delivery. These risks should be considered by women contemplating an elective cesarean delivery and by their physicians. (+info)
Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach.
BACKGROUND: Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4-15 weeks after delivery. RESULTS: The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. CONCLUSION: A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible. (+info)