(1/279) Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 regulates intestinal expression of the guanylin/heat-stable toxin receptor.
We have investigated the regulation of gene transcription in the intestine using the guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) gene as a model. GCC is expressed in crypts and villi in the small intestine and in crypts and surface epithelium of the colon. DNase I footprint, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), transient transfection assays, and mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that GCC transcription is regulated by a critical hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) binding site between bp -46 and -29 and that bp -38 to -36 were essential for binding. Binding of HNF-4 to the GCC promoter was confirmed by competition EMSA and by supershift EMSA. In Caco-2 and T84 cells, which express both GCC and HNF-4, the activity of GCC promoter and/or luciferase reporter plasmids containing 128 or 1973 bp of 5'-flanking sequence was dependent on the HNF-4 binding site in the proximal promoter. In COLO-DM cells, which express neither GCC nor HNF-4, cotransfection of GCC promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids with an HNF-4 expression vector resulted in 23-fold stimulation of the GCC promoter. Mutation of the HNF-4 binding site abolished this transactivation. Transfection of COLO-DM cells with the HNF-4 expression vector stimulated transcription of the endogenous GCC gene as well. These results indicate that HNF-4 is a key regulator of GCC expression in the intestine. (+info)
(2/279) Cellular microbiology: can we learn cell physiology from microorganisms?
Cellular microbiology is a new discipline that is emerging at the interface between cell biology and microbiology. The application of molecular techniques to the study of bacterial pathogenesis has made possible discoveries that are changing the way scientists view the bacterium-host interaction. Today, research on the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of infective diarrheal diseases of necessity transcends established boundaries between cell biology, bacteriology, intestinal pathophysiology, and immunology. The use of microbial pathogens to address questions in cell physiology is just now yielding promising applications and striking results. (+info)
(3/279) Structure and activity of OK-GC: a kidney receptor guanylate cyclase activated by guanylin peptides.
Uroguanylin, guanylin, and lymphoguanylin are small peptides that activate renal and intestinal receptor guanylate cyclases (GC). They are structurally similar to bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins (ST) that cause secretory diarrhea. Uroguanylin, guanylin, and ST elicit natriuresis, kaliuresis, and diuresis by direct actions on kidney GC receptors. A 3,762-bp cDNA characterizing a uroguanylin/guanylin/ST receptor was isolated from opossum kidney (OK) cell RNA/cDNA. This kidney cDNA (OK-GC) encodes a mature protein containing 1,049 residues sharing 72.4-75.8% identity with rat, human, and porcine forms of intestinal GC-C receptors. COS or HEK-293 cells expressing OK-GC receptor protein were activated by uroguanylin, guanylin, or ST13 peptides. The 3.8-kb OK-GC mRNA transcript is most abundant in the kidney cortex and intestinal mucosa, with lower mRNA levels observed in urinary bladder, adrenal gland, and myocardium and with no detectable transcripts in skin or stomach mucosa. We propose that OK-GC receptor GC participates in a renal mechanism of action for uroguanylin and/or guanylin in the physiological regulation of urinary sodium, potassium, and water excretion. This renal tubular receptor GC may be a target for circulating uroguanylin in an endocrine link between the intestine and kidney and/or participate in an intrarenal paracrine mechanism for regulation of kidney function via the intracellular second messenger, cGMP. (+info)
(4/279) Relationship between the actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), guanylin and uroguanylin on the isolated kidney.
Guanylin and uroguanylin are peptides that bind to and activate guanylate cyclase C and control salt and water transport in many epithelia in vertebrates, mimicking the action of several heat-stable bacteria enterotoxins. In the kidney, both of them have well-documented natriuretic and kaliuretic effects. Since atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) also has a natriuretic effect mediated by cGMP, experiments were designed in the isolated perfused rat kidney to identify possible synergisms between ANP, guanylin and uroguanylin. Inulin was added to the perfusate and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined at 10-min intervals. Sodium was also determined. Electrolyte dynamics were measured by the clearance formula. Guanylin (0.5 microg/ml, N = 12) or uroguanylin (0.5 microg/ml, N = 9) was added to the system after 30 min of perfusion with ANP (0.1 ng/ml). The data were compared at 30-min intervals to a control (N = 12) perfused with modified Krebs-Hanseleit solution and to experiments using guanylin and uroguanylin at the same dose (0.5 microg/ml). After previous introduction of ANP in the system, guanylin promoted a reduction in fractional sodium transport (%TNa+, P<0.05) (from 78.46 +/- 0.86 to 64.62 +/- 1.92, 120 min). In contrast, ANP blocked uroguanylin-induced increase in urine flow (from 0.21 +/- 0.01 to 0.15 +/- 0.007 ml g-1 min-1, 120 min, P<0.05) and the reduction in fractional sodium transport (from 72.04 +/- 0. 86 to 85.19 +/- 1.48, %TNa+, at 120 min of perfusion, P<0.05). Thus, the synergism between ANP + guanylin and the antagonism between ANP + uroguanylin indicate the existence of different subtypes of receptors mediating the renal actions of guanylins. (+info)
(5/279) Role of the prosequence of guanylin.
Guanylin is a guanylyl cyclase (GC)-activating peptide that is mainly secreted as the corresponding prohormone of 94 amino acid residues. In this study, we show that the originally isolated 15-residue guanylin, representing the COOH-terminal part of the prohormone, is released from the prohormone by cleavage of an Asp-Pro amide bond under conditions applied during the isolation procedures. Thus, the 15-residue guanylin is probably a non-native, chemically induced GC-activating peptide. This guanylin molecule contains two disulfide bonds that are absolutely necessary for receptor activation. We demonstrate that the folding of the reduced 15-residue guanylin results almost completely in the formation of the two inactive disulfide isomers. In contrast, the reduced form of proguanylin containing the entire prosequence folds to a product with the native cysteine connectivity. Because proguanylin lacking the 31 NH2-terminal residues of the prosequence folds only to a minor extent to guanylin with the native disulfide bonds, it is evident that this NH2-terminal region contributes significantly to the correct disulfide-coupled folding. Structural studies using CD and NMR spectroscopy show that native proguanylin contains a considerable amount of alpha-helical and, to a lesser extent, beta-sheet structural elements. In addition, a close proximity of the NH2- and the COOH-terminal regions was found by NOESY. It appears that this interaction is important for the constitution of the correct conformation and provides an explanation of the minor guanylyl cyclase activity of proguanylin by shielding the bioactive COOH-terminal domain from the receptor. (+info)
(6/279) Guanylin peptides: cyclic GMP signaling mechanisms.
Guanylate cyclases (GC) serve in two different signaling pathways involving cytosolic and membrane enzymes. Membrane GCs are receptors for guanylin and atriopeptin peptides, two families of cGMP-regulating peptides. Three subclasses of guanylin peptides contain one intramolecular disulfide (lymphoguanylin), two disulfides (guanylin and uroguanylin) and three disulfides (E. coli stable toxin, ST). The peptides activate membrane receptor-GCs and regulate intestinal Cl- and HCO3- secretion via cGMP in target enterocytes. Uroguanylin and ST also elicit diuretic and natriuretic responses in the kidney. GC-C is an intestinal receptor-GC for guanylin and uroguanylin, but GC-C may not be involved in renal cGMP pathways. A novel receptor-GC expressed in the opossum kidney (OK-GC) has been identified by molecular cloning. OK-GC cDNAs encode receptor-GCs in renal tubules that are activated by guanylins. Lymphoguanylin is highly expressed in the kidney and heart where it may influence cGMP pathways. Guanylin and uroguanylin are highly expressed in intestinal mucosa to regulate intestinal salt and water transport via paracrine actions on GC-C. Uroguanylin and guanylin are also secreted from intestinal mucosa into plasma where uroguanylin serves as an intestinal natriuretic hormone to influence body Na+ homeostasis by endocrine mechanisms. Thus, guanylin peptides control salt and water transport in the kidney and intestine mediated by cGMP via membrane receptors with intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity. (+info)
(7/279) Renal effects of uroguanylin and guanylin in vivo.
Uroguanylin and guanylin are newly discovered endogenous heat-stable peptides that bind to and activate a membrane bound guanylyl cyclase signaling receptor (termed guanylyl cyclase C; GC-C). These peptides are not only found in blood but are secreted into the lumen of the intestine and effect a net secretion of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-) and fluid into the intestine via a cyclic guanosine-3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) mechanism. GC-C is also the receptor for Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) and activation by STa results in a diarrheal illness. Employing mouse renal in vivo models, we have demonstrated that uroguanylin, guanylin, and STa elicit natriuretic, kaliuretic, and diuretic effects. These biological responses are time- and dose-dependent. Maximum natriuretic and kaliuretic effects are observed within 30-40 min following infusion with pharmacological doses of the peptides in a sealed-urethra mouse model. Our mouse renal clearance model confirms these results and shows significant natriuresis following a constant infusion of uroguanylin for 30 min, while the glomerular filtration rate, plasma creatinine, urine osmolality, heart rate, and blood pressure remain constant. These data suggest the peptides act through tubular transport mechanisms. Consistent with a tubular mechanism, messenger RNA-differential display PCR of kidney RNA extracted from vehicle- and uroguanylin-treated mice show the message for the Na+/K+ ATPase gamma-subunit is down-regulated. Interestingly, GC-C knockout mice (Gucy2c -/-) also exhibit significant uroguanylin-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis in vivo, suggesting the presence of an alternate receptor signaling mechanism in the kidney. Thus, uroguanylin and guanylin seem to serve as intestinal and renal natriuretic peptide-hormones influencing salt and water transport in the kidney through GC-C dependent and independent pathways. Furthermore, our recent clinical probe study has revealed a 70-fold increase in levels of urinary uroguanylin in patients with congestive heart failure. In conclusion, our studies support the concept that uroguanylin and guanylin are endogenous effector peptides involved in regulating body salt and water homeostasis. (+info)
(8/279) Marked increase of guanylin secretion in response to salt loading in the rat small intestine.
Guanylin and uroguanylin are intestinal peptides that stimulate guanylate cyclase C and cause chloride secretion. These peptides show topological instability due to two disulfide bonds. The disulfide bonds were reduced and S-carboxymethylated to cleave the bonds and obtain stable and sole derivatives. We established a new and reliable RIA system for the stable derivatives from both peptides. With the use of this system, the response of the peptides to salt loading of the rat small intestine was evaluated. The lumen of the small intestines of Sprague-Dawley rats was perfused in vivo with Krebs-Ringer solution containing different concentrations of salt or mannitol. Mature guanylin, proguanylin, and mature uroguanylin were found in the perfusate in the basal state. The highest salt loading (200 mM NaCl for 20 min) increased the guanylin secretion about threefold (1.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.5 pmol/min), with the effect lasting for 60 min. The uroguanylin secretion was less affected. Hyperosmolar mannitol also caused a significant but smaller increase of guanylin secretion. Increased guanylin could lead to increased salt and water secretion of the intestine; thus members of the guanylin family have potential roles in the regulation of water and salt metabolism in the small intestine. (+info)