Outer membrane protein profiles of paired nasopharyngeal and middle ear isolates of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Mexican children with acute otitis media.
We studied nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) isolates from simultaneous cultures of nasopharyngeal exudates (NEs) and middle ear fluids (MEFs) obtained by tympanocentesis from 57 children with acute otitis media (AOM). Preparations of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from 14 pairs of NTHi strains recovered from NEs and MEFs from 10 children with unilateral AOM and four with bilateral AOM were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NTHi subtypes were determined by comparing the OMP profiles of the isolated strains with those of eight reference NTHi subtypes. Of the 14 pairs, 10 (71%) were identical, and one (8%) was different; three strains isolated from NEs (21%) did not correspond to any of the reference subtypes (nonsubtypable). Subtypes 4, 6, 5, 3, and 8 were isolated in the present study, thereby showing that their distribution is similar to that of subtypes isolated from children with AOM in the United States and suggesting that common otogenic strains are widely distributed in North America. (+info)
Nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) immunity: fimbriae-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-regulated IgA responses for the inhibition of bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production.
To investigate the antibacterial activity of mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced nasally and orally, mice were immunized with mucosal vaccine containing fimbrial protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent for a destructive chronic inflammation in the periodontium, and cholera toxin (CT) as mucosal adjuvant. Nasal vaccine containing low doses of fimbriae (10 micrograms) and CT (1 microgram) induced Ag-specific Th1/Th2-type response in CD4+ T cells in mucosal effector tissues, including nasal passage and submandibular glands, which accounted for the generation of Ag-specific IgA-producing cells. In contrast, oral immunization required higher amounts of fimbriae and CT for the induction of Ag-specific IgA responses. Fimbriae-specific IgA mAbs generated from submandibular glands of nasally immunized mice inhibited P. gingivalis attachment to and reduced subsequent inflammatory cytokine production from epithelial cells. These findings suggest that nasal vaccination is an effective immunization regimen for the induction of Ag-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-driven IgA immune responses that possess the ability to inhibit bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production. (+info)
MR appearance of rhinoscleroma.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We describe the MR imaging appearance of rhinoscleroma, an endemic, chronic, granulomatous disease whose causative agent is Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. METHODS: The study included 15 patients (nine males and six females; mean age, 25 years; range, 13-36 years) with rhinoscleroma. MR imaging was performed in all patients. The signal intensity of the nasal masses was compared with that of fat, muscle, and CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. All cases were proved by histopathologic examination. RESULTS: The nasal masses were bilateral and symmetrical (n = 6), asymmetrical (n = 4), or unilateral (n = 5). They extended through the anterior nares (n = 9) or posterior choana into the nasopharynx (n = 3). They obstructed the ostiomeatal units with retained secretions in the related sinuses (n = 10). On T1-weighted images, rhinoscleroma showed striking (n = 9) or mild (n = 6) high signal intensity relative to muscle and CSF, but less hyperintensity than fat. On T2-weighted images, the nasal masses showed homogeneous high signal intensity (n = 10) or heterogeneous high signal intensity associated with hypointense foci (n = 5). They were hyperintense relative to fat and muscle, but less hyperintense than CSF. CONCLUSION: The hypertrophic stage of rhinoscleroma has characteristic mild to marked high signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. (+info)
Coinfection with influenza B virus does not affect association of Neisseria meningitidis with human nasopharyngeal mucosa in organ culture.
There is an epidemiological association between influenza virus infection and meningococcal disease. Proposed mechanisms are the destruction of the normal epithelial barrier function of the upper respiratory tract by influenza virus or the expression of human or viral surface-exposed proteins that enhance bacterial adherence and/or invasion. To test these hypotheses, human nasopharyngeal mucosa specimens from a total of 19 individual donors were successfully infected with influenza B virus and then inoculated with serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. Subsequent bacterial association with the epithelial surface was measured in three separate series of experiments by using transmission electron microscopy (n = 6), scanning electron microscopy (n = 6), and counting of viable bacteria within homogenates of explants (n = 7). Penetration of the mucosa was estimated by measuring the count of viable bacteria recovered from explants after exposure to sodium taurocholate. Bacterial association with the surface of explants was time dependent over 24 h of superinfection. Influenza virus did not positively or negatively influence bacterial attachment to or penetration of explant mucosa compared to those of uninfected controls, even when the period of preincubation with virus was extended to 7 days. When proteins were purified from mucosal epithelium and immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes, N. meningitidis attached predominantly to bands corresponding to proteins of 210 and 130 kDa. In the presence of influenza virus infection, these proteins were gradually lost over the course of 72 h. In conclusion, influenza B virus did not increase association of serogroup B N. meningitidis with human nasopharyngeal mucosa. (+info)
Bordetella holmesii-like organisms isolated from Massachusetts patients with pertussis-like symptoms.
We isolated Bordetella holmesii, generally associated with septicemia in patients with underlying conditions, from nasopharyngeal specimens of otherwise healthy young persons with a cough. The proportion of B. holmesii-positive specimens submitted to the Massachusetts State Laboratory Institute increased from 1995 to 1998. (+info)
Networks and groups within the genus Neisseria: analysis of argF, recA, rho, and 16S rRNA sequences from human Neisseria species.
To understand the pattern of nucleotide sequence variation among bacteria that frequently exchange chromosomal genes, we analyzed sequences of the recA, argF, and rho genes, as well as part of the small-subunit (16S) rRNA gene, from about 50 isolates of human commensal Neisseria species and the pathogenic N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Almost all isolates of these species could be assigned to five phylogenetic groups that are found for all genes examined and generally are supported by high bootstrap values. In contrast, the phylogenetic relationships among groups varied according to the gene analyzed with notable incongruences involving N. cinerea and N. lactamica. Further analysis using split decomposition showed that for each gene, including 16S rRNA, the patterns of sequence divergence within N. meningitidis and closely related species were inconsistent with a bifurcating treelike phylogeny and better represented by an interconnected network. These data indicate that the human commensal Neisseria species can be separated into discrete groups of related species but that the relationships both within and among these groups, including those reconstructed using 16S rRNA, have been distorted by interspecies recombination events. (+info)
Outcomes of Bordetella infections in vaccinated children: effects of bacterial number in the nasopharynx and patient age.
Five outbreaks of infection (three pertussis, one parapertussis, and one mixed) in schools were studied prospectively. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from a total of 697 children for culture of Bordetella organisms. Of 50 vaccinated children with culture-confirmed Bordetella infections (29 with pertussis and 21 parapertussis), 40 were symptomatic and 10 remained symptom-free. Smaller numbers of colonies were recovered from the nasopharyngeal swabs of the asymptomatic children than from those of the symptomatic children. Older children had longer durations of illness than younger ones. Our results indicate that during outbreaks children who do not develop disease may have small amounts of Bordetella organisms in their nasopharynges and/or better immune defenses against the disease. (+info)
A technique to measure the ability of the human nose to warm and humidify air.
To assess the ability of the nose to warm and humidify inhaled air, we developed a nasopharyngeal probe and measured the temperature and humidity of air exiting the nasal cavity. We delivered cold, dry air (19-1 degrees C, <10% relative humidity) or hot, humid air (37 degrees C, >90% relative humidity) to the nose via a nasal mask at flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 l/min. We used a water gradient across the nose (water content in nasopharynx minus water content of delivered air) to assess nasal function. We studied the characteristics of nasal air conditioning in 22 asymptomatic, seasonally allergic subjects (out of their allergy season) and 11 nonallergic normal subjects. Inhalation of hot, humid air at increasingly higher flow rates had little effect on both the relative humidity and the temperature of air in the nasopharynx. In both groups, increasing the flow of cold, dry air lowered both the temperature and the water content of the inspired air measured in the nasopharynx, although the relative humidity remained at 100%. Water gradient values obtained during cold dry air challenges on separate days showed reproducibility in both allergic and nonallergic subjects. After exposure to cold, dry air, the water gradient was significantly lower in allergic than in nonallergic subjects (1,430 +/- 45 vs. 1,718 +/- 141 mg; P = 0.02), suggesting an impairment in their ability to warm and humidify inhaled air. (+info)