Nasolacrimal duct foreign body--endoscopic removal. (1/91)

Foreign body in the nasolacrimal duct is extremely rare. We present a case of foreign body of nasolacrimal duct responsible for recurrent dacryocystitis which was removed with the help of an endoscope.  (+info)

The cavernous body of the human efferent tear ducts: function in tear outflow mechanism. (2/91)

PURPOSE: To determine the structure and function of a system of large blood vessels integrated in the bony canal between the orbit and the inferior nasal duct. METHODS: Thirty-one dissected lacrimal systems of adults were analyzed by using gross anatomy, histology, and electron microscopy as well as corrosion vascular casts. RESULTS: More than two thirds of the bony canal between orbit and inferior nasal duct is filled by a plexus of wide-lumened veins and arteries. The vascular system is embedded in the wall of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct and is connected to the cavernous tissue of the inferior turbinate. Three types of blood vessels can be distinguished inside the vascular tissue that surrounds the lumen of the lacrimal passage: barrier arteries, capacitance veins, and throttle veins. CONCLUSIONS: The surrounding vascular plexus of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct is comparable to a cavernous body. While regulating the blood flow, the specialized blood vessels permit opening and closing of the lumen of the lacrimal passage, effected by the bulging and subsiding of the cavernous body, and at the same time regulate tear outflow. Other functions such as drainage of absorbed tear fluid components and a role in immunologic response are under discussion as well. Malfunctions in the cavernous body may lead to disturbances in the tear outflow cycle, ocular congestion, or total occlusion of the lacrimal passages. Variations in the conditions for swelling of the cavernous tissue may have led to the (mistaken) description of valves in the lacrimal passage.  (+info)

MR dacryocystography: comparison with dacryocystography and CT dacryocystography. (3/91)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several techniques have been used to image the nasolacrimal system, providing functional (dacryoscintigraphy) or morphologic (dacryocystography, CT dacryocystography [CTD]) information. Using gadopentetate dimeglumine-diluted solution injected into the lacrimal canaliculus or instilled into the conjunctival sac, we compared the sensitivity of MR dacryocystography (MRD) with that of CTD. METHODS: Eleven healthy volunteers and 25 patients affected by primary epiphora (21 patients) or postsurgical recurrent epiphora (four patients) underwent MRD after the topical administration of contrast media or cannulation of the lacrimal canaliculus. The MR imaging findings were compared with irrigation and CTD data. All patients underwent surgical treatment (dacryocystorhinostomy), which served as a standard of reference for confirming the MRD findings. RESULTS: The topical administration of contrast-enhanced saline solution and the injection of contrast-enhanced saline solution after cannulation were always well tolerated. In healthy volunteers, outflow of contrast media was always revealed by MRD. Eight (32%) of 25 patients with epiphora had stenosis proximal to the lacrimal sac revealed by MRD, whereas 17 (68%) of 25 showed a dilated lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct stenosis, as confirmed by surgical findings. The findings of MRD after the topical administration of contrast medium and MRD after cannulation of the lacrimal canaliculus were comparable with irrigation or CTD data for all patients except one. CONCLUSION: In patients with epiphora, MR imaging performed after the topical administration of diluted contrast material can reveal stenosis of the lacrimal apparatus and can be added to the standard orbital imaging protocol when lacrimal system involvement is suspected.  (+info)

Otolaryngological findings in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction and implications for prognosis. (4/91)

AIM: To investigate otolaryngological abnormalities associated with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) and their effect on the prognosis. METHODS: 65 consecutive cases of CNLDO were followed up with routine otorhinolaryngological examination with tympanometry. RESULTS: Otitis media with effusion (OME) and uvula bifida were detected in 44.6% and 9.2% of the children, respectively. Medical treatment and probing were less effective in patients with OME (p<0. 05). CONCLUSIONS: OME and uvula bifida are significant anomalies associated with CNLDO and the former has a marked effect on the prognosis. This finding may help to determine the patients who will need further treatment after massage and probing.  (+info)

Radical resection for naso-lacrimal duct tumour. (5/91)

Naso-lacrimal duct tumours are uncommon and present with epiphora and swelling. Since the naso-lacrimal duct is embedded in bone for the majority of its anatomical length, the late presentation of proptosis is due to orbital extension of the tumour. Radical surgical treatment is necessary to establish clear margins and facilitate reconstruction.  (+info)

Innervation of the cavernous body of the human efferent tear ducts and function in tear outflow mechanism. (6/91)

The lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct are surrounded by a wide cavernous system of veins and arteries comparable to a cavernous body. The present study aimed to demonstrate the ultrastructure of the nervous tissue and the localisation of neuropeptides involved in the innervation of the cavernous body, a topic not previously investigated. Different S-100 protein antisera, neuronal markers (neuron-specific enolase, anti-200 kDa neurofilament), neuropeptides (substance P, neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) and the neuronal enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase were used to demonstrate the distribution pattern of the nervous tissue. The ultrastructure of the innervating nerve fibres was also examined by means of standard transmission electron microscopy. The cavernous body contained specialised arteries and veins known as barrier arteries, capacitance veins, and throttle veins. Perivascularly, the tissue was rich in myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres in a plexus-like network. Small seromucous glands found in the region of the fundus of the lacrimal sac were contacted by nerve fibres forming a plexus around their alveoli. Many nerve fibres were positive for S-100 protein (S 100), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), anti-200 kDa neurofilament (RT 97), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactivity was only demonstrated adjacent to the seromucous glands. Both the density of nerve fibres as well as the presence of various neuropeptides emphasises the neural control of the cavernous body of the human efferent tear ducts. By means of this innervation, the specialised blood vessels permit regulation of blood flow by opening and closing the lumen of the lacrimal passage as effected by the engorgement and subsidence of the cavernous body, at the same time regulating tear outflow. Related functions such as a role in the occurrence of epiphora related to emotional responses are relevant. Moreover, malfunction in the innervation of the cavernous body may lead to disturbances in the tear outflow cycle, ocular congestion or total occlusion of the lacrimal passages.  (+info)

Antegrade balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal duct obstruction in adults. (7/91)

AIMS: To determine the efficacy of antegrade balloon dilatation of postsaccal lacrimal stenosis in adults. METHODS: Balloon dilatation was performed in a series of 30 patients with complete nasolacrimal duct obstructions and epiphora. Obstruction was diagnosed by canalicular irrigation and transcanalicular endoscopic examination of the lacrimal pathway. Except for four cases in which general anaesthesia was applied, the procedure was performed under local anaesthesia. The Lacricath balloon catheter set was used. Silicone intubation was performed simultaneously. The time at which the tubes were removed depended on the findings at postoperative follow up but was, at the earliest, 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Success was objectified by irrigation and was evaluated subjectively at each follow up examination according to Munk's scale. In all cases the procedure could be performed with subsequent silicone intubation. Three months postoperatively 89.9% of all cases were positive on simple irrigation, and subjective success was also registered (Munk's grade 0 or 1). At 6 months 70% of all cases were positive on irrigation, again with subjective success (Munk's grade 0 or 1). One year postoperatively 73.3% of all procedures showed subjective success (two successful redilatations would raise the success rate to 79.9%). CONCLUSION: Retrograde as well as antegrade dilatation has been reported to be more or less successful in partial nasolacrimal obstruction. Although the procedure is used as primary treatment in cases of complete obstruction, it can still be performed under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis. Long term observation will be required to prove the sustained effect of this procedure.  (+info)

The presence of a local immune system in the upper blind and lower part of the human nasolacrimal duct. (8/91)

The nasolacrimal duct is exposed to exogenous agents, including potentially harmful microorganisms, coming from the eye surface by the lacrimal sac, and from the nasal cavity by the inferior meatus of the nose. The upper blind and lower part of the human nasolacrimal duct were examined immunohistochemically to ascertain the presence and localization of immunoglobulin-producing cells and the epithelial expression of IgA, IgM, and IgG in order to verify the possible antimicrobial properties of this duct. IgA-, IgM-, and IgG-positive immunocompetent cells were recognizable in the lamina propria of the upper blind and lower part of the human nasolacrimal duct, while an evident immunoreactivity for sIgA, IgM, and IgG was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of the apical epithelial cells. The results suggest that all the effector components of the mucosal immune system are present in that area of the human nasal mucosa next to the opening of the nasolacrimal duct as well as in the human lacrimal sac.  (+info)