Influence of nasal obstruction on auto-CPAP behaviour during sleep in sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Auto-CPAP machines have been developed to adapt automatically the positive pressure level to the required needs. The auto-CPAP response to transient nasal obstruction was tested during sleep in patients with sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS). METHODS: Nasal obstruction was induced by local instillation of histamine. Fourteen nasal challenges were performed on eight patients, seven while the patients were on the "Morphee plus" apparatus and the other seven with the patients on the "Horizon" machine. RESULTS: Nasal resistance increased initially by a mean (SD) of 166 (66)% during the trials with the "Morphee plus" and by 118 (44)% with the "Horizon" machine. The increase in nasal resistance was always accompanied by flow limitation with one exception. Mask pressure initially decreased to the minimal permitted value as nasal resistance increased with the "Morphee plus" device. A late increase of the positive pressure level occurred sometimes. Mask pressure did not change with increasing nasal resistance when the "Horizon" device was used. CONCLUSION: Neither the "Morphee plus" nor the "Horizon" device abolished flow limited breaths and resulting sleep fragmentation. We conclude that, despite the different algorithm of pressure changes, these auto-CPAP machines do not adequately respond to an acute increase in nasal resistance. (+info)
MR appearance of rhinoscleroma.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We describe the MR imaging appearance of rhinoscleroma, an endemic, chronic, granulomatous disease whose causative agent is Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. METHODS: The study included 15 patients (nine males and six females; mean age, 25 years; range, 13-36 years) with rhinoscleroma. MR imaging was performed in all patients. The signal intensity of the nasal masses was compared with that of fat, muscle, and CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. All cases were proved by histopathologic examination. RESULTS: The nasal masses were bilateral and symmetrical (n = 6), asymmetrical (n = 4), or unilateral (n = 5). They extended through the anterior nares (n = 9) or posterior choana into the nasopharynx (n = 3). They obstructed the ostiomeatal units with retained secretions in the related sinuses (n = 10). On T1-weighted images, rhinoscleroma showed striking (n = 9) or mild (n = 6) high signal intensity relative to muscle and CSF, but less hyperintensity than fat. On T2-weighted images, the nasal masses showed homogeneous high signal intensity (n = 10) or heterogeneous high signal intensity associated with hypointense foci (n = 5). They were hyperintense relative to fat and muscle, but less hyperintense than CSF. CONCLUSION: The hypertrophic stage of rhinoscleroma has characteristic mild to marked high signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. (+info)
Nasal patency and lavage biomarkers in relation to settled dust and cleaning routines in schools.
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the relations between settled dust and cleaning routines in classrooms on one hand, and nasal symptoms, nasal cavity dimensions, and the concentration of selected biomarkers of inflammation in nasal lavage on the other. METHODS: Measurements of settled dust via standardized vacuum cleaning and an investigation of the cleaning routines were performed in 12 randomly selected primary schools in the municipality of Uppsala. Clinical examinations including acoustic rhinometry and nasal lavage were performed in the school environment among 279 school personnel working in the main buildings of the schools. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), lysozyme, and albumin were analyzed in the lavage fluid. The relationships between the medical and hygienic data were analyzed both bivariately and with a multiple regression model controlling for age, gender, smoking, atopy, room temperature, and urban vicinity of the school. RESULTS: The amount of settled dust was positively related to subjective nasal obstruction and smaller nasal cavity dimensions measured with acoustic rhinometry. The noses were less patent, and the levels of ECP or lysozyme in the lavage were increased for the subjects in schools with a lower frequency of floor mopping, a lower frequency of desk cleaning, and where wet mopping was used. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the actual dust levels in Swedish classrooms can affect the occurrence of nasal obstruction among school personnel. A beneficial effect on the clinical signs of the nasal mucosa was observed for a higher frequency of both floor mopping and desk cleaning, whereas the use of wet mopping seemed disadvantageous in comparison with dry mopping. These findings illustrate the need for adequate cleaning procedures to minimize the environmental effects on the airway mucosa. (+info)
Asymptomatic intranasal abnormalities influencing the choice of nostril for nasotracheal intubation.
We have studied the prevalence of intranasal abnormalities that may influence the choice of nostril for intubation, using the fibreoptic laryngoscope, in 60 oral surgery patients presenting for nasotracheal intubation under general anaesthesia, who had no symptoms or signs of nasal obstruction. Videotape recordings were made during each nasendoscopy and later analysed by an anaesthetist and an otolaryngologist. A total of 68% of patients had intranasal abnormalities (10% bilateral and 58% unilateral) which resulted in one nostril being more patent than the other and therefore considered more suitable for intubation. The most common abnormality was deviated nasal septum which occurred in 57% of the study group; 22% were minor deviations, 13% were major deviations and 22% were impactions. Other abnormalities were simple spurs, unilateral polyp and hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate. In view of the relatively high incidence of intranasal pathology revealed on endoscopic examination, anaesthetists should consider using the fibreoptic laryngoscope to select the best nostril when performing nasotracheal intubation. (+info)
Management of respiratory failure with ventilation via intranasal stents in cystic fibrosis.
The case history is presented of a patient with acute respiratory failure complicated by nasal obstruction resulting in intolerance of nasal ventilation. Urgent insertion of nasal stents permitted restoration of ventilation with resolution of breathlessness and stabilisation of arterial blood gases. (+info)
External nasal dilation reduces snoring in chronic rhinitis patients: a randomized controlled trial.
Chronic rhinitis patients often suffer from unrefreshing sleep and snoring, related to increased nasal resistance to airflow. Previous trials based on subjective assessment of snoring have demonstrated beneficial effects of Breathe Right (BR), a noninvasive external nasal dilator. Polysomnography (PSG) was applied to objectively assess the effects of BR on snoring. Twelve nonobese chronic rhinitis patients participated in the present study, which had a randomized, placebo-controlled design. The presence of snoring and the absence of sleep apnoea was demonstrated during a baseline overnight sleep study. Patients were then randomized for placebo or true nasal dilator treatment, which was also assessed by overnight PSG. The use of BR had no effect on sleep quality, arousal-index apnoea-hypopnoea-index or snoring loudness. Snoring frequency was significantly lowered by BR (173+/-29 snores x h(-l)), compared with placebo (258+/-34 snores x h(-1); p=0.016). The results support the hypothesis that Breathe Right is effective in reducing the amount of snoring in patients with chronic rhinitis. This objective finding is in line with some other reports on subjective improvement of snoring, based upon the judgement of bedpartners. (+info)
Airway disorders and pulmonary function in snorers. A population-based study.
The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between snoring, airway disorders and pulmonary function in the general population. We performed a stratified random sampling from the population (n = 92,364). Four hundred subjects agreed to participate and were invited to the clinic, where a detailed medical history, physical examination, spirometric test and maximal respiratory pressures measurements were carried out. Snoring was reported by 152 subjects (38%). Nasal obstruction and the presence of abnormal pharynx exploration were more frequent in subjects with snoring. Age, body mass index and neck circumference were significantly higher in the snorer group. In addition, we found that the non-snoring group had a significantly higher frequency of tonsillectomy during infancy and adolescence than the snorer group. We did not detect any significant difference in spirometric test values or in maximal respiratory pressure values between snorer group and non-snorer group. In conclusion, in the general population snoring is associated with nasal obstruction and abnormal pharynx exploration. Furthermore, snoring appears not to be associated with modifications in spirometric or in maximal respiratory pressure tests. (+info)
A cephalometric comparison of subjects with snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea.
This prospective study analysed the upright lateral cephalometric radiographs of 115 dentate, Caucasian males. Forty-five subjects exhibited proven obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), 46 were simple snorers, and the remaining 24 subjects, who had no history of respiratory disease and did not snore, acted as controls. Radiographs were traced and digitized, and comparisons were made of the dento-skeletal, soft tissue, and oropharyngeal features of the three groups. Differences were also sought between the snoring and OSA subjects. Of the hard tissue measurements, only the cranial base angle and mandibular body length showed significant inter-group differences (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). When the airway and associated structures were examined, both snorers and OSA subjects exhibited narrower airways, reduced oropharyngeal areas, shorter and thicker soft palates, and larger tongues than their control counterparts. Comparison of the two sleep disordered breathing groups showed no differences in any of the skeletal or dental variables examined. However in OSA subjects, the soft palate was larger and thicker (P < 0.05), both lingual and oropharyngeal areas were increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and the hyoid was further from the mandibular plane (P < 0.05). Thus, whilst the dento-skeletal patterns of snorers resembled those of subjects with OSA, some differences in soft tissue and hyoid orientation were apparent. There was not, however, a recognizable gradation in size of the airway and its associated structures from control through snoring to OSA subjects. This suggests that there may be a cephalometrically recognizable predisposition towards the development of sleep disordered breathing, but that this is only one facet of the condition. (+info)