Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens.
Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin. (+info)
Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog.
Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes. (+info)
Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats.
1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response. (+info)
Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses.
Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit. (+info)
Glycoconjugate expression in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in specific pathogen-free and conventional rats.
We examined lectin-histochemically the glycoconjugate expression in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in the rat under specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional (CV) conditions and compared the results for SPF and CV rats as well as for membranous (M) cells and adjacent ciliated respiratory epithelial (CRE) cells in FAE. N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Glycine max (SBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), and alpha-L-fucose-specific lectin, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), preferentially bound to M cells mainly in the luminal surface compared with CRE cells in SPF rats, whereas DBA and UEA-I showed signs of preferential binding to the apical and basolateral cytoplasm as well as to the luminal surface of M cells in CV rats. In addition, HPA, SBA and VVA more frequently and extensively labeled M cells than CRE cells in CV rats with the same subcellular staining pattern as DBA and UEA-I. On the whole, the changes in lectin binding frequency and strength were more prominent in M cells than in CRE cells in both SPF and CV rats. The present results indicate that DBA and UEA-I are useful as markers of M cells in NALT. Furthermore, the pattern of expression of carbohydrate residues recognized by such lectins in SPF and CV rats suggests that M cells are highly sensitive to environmental changes. (+info)
Anatomical structure and surface epithelial distribution in the nasal cavity of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
To validate use of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in inhalation toxicity studies, its nasal morphology was examined. The nasal turbinates each consisted of one maxilloturbinate and one ethmoturbinate: these were more planar in structure than the comparable structures of rodents or dogs. The nasal cavity epithelia comprised squamous epithelium (SE), nasal transitional epithelium (NTE), respiratory epithelium (RE) and olfactory epithelium (OE), listed in order of occurrence from anterior to posterior positions. NTE was distributed as a narrow band lying between SE and RE. OE was limited to the dorsal part of the cavity, which was structurally similar to that of the macaque or man. Overall, this study revealed structural the similarity of the whole nasal cavity in the marmoset to that of macaques or humans. Prediction of nasal cavity changes in man based on extrapolation from experimentally induced changes in the common marmoset therefore seems likely to be feasible, making it a useful animal model for inhalation studies. (+info)
Nitric oxide-mediated regulation of transepithelial sodium and chloride transport in murine nasal epithelium.
Transepithelial ion transport is regulated by a variety of cellular factors. In light of recent evidence that nitric oxide (NO) production is decreased in cystic fibrosis airways, we examined the role of NO in regulating sodium and chloride transport in murine nasal epithelium. Acute intervention with the inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-selective inhibitor S-methylisothiourea resulted in an increase of amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption observed as a hyperpolarization of nasal transepithelial potential difference. Inhibition of iNOS expression with dexamethasone also hyperpolarized transepithelial potential difference, but only a portion of this increase proved to be amiloride sensitive. Chloride secretion was significantly inhibited in C57BL/6J mice by the addition of both S-methylisothiourea and dexamethasone. Mice lacking iNOS expression [NOS2(-/-)] also had a decreased chloride-secretory response compared with control mice. These data suggest that constitutive NO production likely plays some role in the downregulation of sodium absorption and leads to an increase in transepithelial chloride secretion. (+info)
The rostral ventrolateral medulla mediates the sympathoactivation produced by chemical stimulation of the rat nasal mucosa.
1. We sought to outline the brainstem circuit responsible for the increase in sympathetic tone caused by chemical stimulation of the nasal passages with ammonia vapour. Experiments were performed in alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. 2. Stimulation of the nasal mucosa increased splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND), elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP), raised heart rate slightly and inhibited phrenic nerve discharge. 3. Bilateral injections of the broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenate (Kyn) into the rostral part of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; rostral C1 area) greatly reduced the effects of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND (-80 %). These injections had no effect on resting ABP, resting SND or the sympathetic baroreflex. 4. Bilateral injections of Kyn into the ventrolateral medulla at the level of the obex (caudal C1 area) or into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) greatly attenuated the baroreflex and significantly increased the baseline levels of both SND and ABP. However they did not reduce the effect of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND. 5. Single-unit recordings were made from 39 putative sympathoexcitatory neurons within the rostral C1 area. Most neurons (24 of 39) were activated by nasal mucosa stimulation (+65.8 % rise in discharge rate). Responding neurons had a wide range of conduction velocities and included slow-conducting neurons identified previously as C1 cells. The remaining putative sympathoexcitatory neurons were either unaffected (n = 8 neurons) or inhibited (n = 7) during nasal stimulation. We also recorded from ten respiratory-related neurons, all of which were silenced by nasal stimulation. 6. In conclusion, the sympathoexcitatory response to nasal stimulation is largely due to activation of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons within the RVLM. We suggest that these neurons receive convergent and directionally opposite polysynaptic inputs from arterial baroreceptors and trigeminal afferents. These inputs are integrated within the rostral C1 area as opposed to the NTS or the caudal C1 area. (+info)