Alpha2-macroglobulin and eosinophil cationic protein in the allergic airway mucosa in seasonal allergic rhinitis.
As previously demonstrated in seasonal allergic rhinitis, increased microvascular permeability and eosinophil activation are key features of allergic airway inflammation. In the present study, the hypothesis that exudation of alpha2-macroglobulin may cause the appearance of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the airway lumen was explored. Nasal lavages were carried out using the nasal pool device before and during the pollen season both at baseline and after histamine challenge in 10 children with allergic rhinitis. Nasal lavage fluid levels of alpha2-macroglobulin and ECP were determined. All patients experienced nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis during the pollen season (p<0.01-0.05). Baseline nasal lavage fluid levels of alpha2-macroglobulin and ECP were increased during the season (p<0.01-0.05) and were found to be well correlated (p<0.0001). Histamine produced concentration-dependent plasma exudation before and during the pollen season, but it was only during the pollen season that this caused an increase in the lavage fluid levels of ECP (p<0.05). These data suggest that exudation of plasma and increased tissue levels and output of eosinophil cationic protein characterize nasal mucosal inflammation in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The plasma exudation process in part may account for lumenal entry of eosinophil cationic protein molecules that have been released in mucosal tissue compartments. A combination of induced exudation and nasal lavage may improve the yield of important markers of inflammation in studies of nasal diseases. (+info)
Histamine release upon adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) nasal provocation in allergic subjects.
BACKGROUND: Nasal provocation with adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) elicits nasal symptoms in subjects with rhinitis. Histamine released from mast cells may play a part in AMP induced nasal responses. METHODS: Symptoms of rhinitis were recorded and histamine release in the fluid obtained by nasal lavage after AMP, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), and placebo instillations was measured in nine subjects with allergic rhinitis and nine non-allergic controls in a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study. RESULTS: No symptoms or significant increases in histamine were observed after GMP and placebo challenge. Significantly higher levels of histamine were seen in the nasal lavage fluids of allergic subjects following AMP challenge than in nonallergic controls, the median (range) histamine concentration increasing from the baseline value of 1.62 (0.44-6.99) ng/ml to 6.45 (0.81-16.17) ng/ml at three minutes. No increase in histamine levels was seen in the non-allergic subjects in whom the median histamine concentration was 1.13 (0.29-4.25) ng/ml at baseline and 0.97 (0.31-5.89) ng/ml three minutes after AMP challenge. CONCLUSIONS: AMP elicits an immediate rise in histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid of allergic subjects compared with non-allergic individuals. These findings indicate that the exaggerated nasal response to adenosine may reflect mast cell priming in vivo, thus supporting its application as a potential new marker of allergic inflammation. (+info)
Evidence for cytokine mediation of disease expression in adults experimentally infected with influenza A virus.
The roles of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in mediating the symptoms and signs of influenza A infection were examined. Adults were intranasally inoculated with a rimantadine-sensitive strain of influenza A HlNl virus and treated with rimantadine or placebo. Viral shedding, secretion weights, symptom scores, and concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 in nasal lavage fluids were compared between treatment groups. Viral shedding was associated with increases in local and systemic symptoms, in expelled secretion weights, and in levels of IL-6 and IL-8. Compared with placebo, rimantadine treatment reduced viral shedding, systemic symptoms, and levels of IL-8. Days of viral shedding and IL-6 but not IL-8 concentrations were significantly correlated with the other measures of symptoms and signs. These data support a causal relationship between viral replication, cytokine production, and symptom expression, and they suggest that IL-6 may have a role in mediating symptom and sign expression during influenza A infection. (+info)
Rhinovirus regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro: a potential mechanism of symptom resolution.
Rhinovirus (RV) upper respiratory tract infections are prototypic transient inflammatory responses. To address the mechanism of disease resolution in these infections, we determined if RV stimulated the production of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, immunoreactive IL-1ra was readily detected in the nasal washings of normal human volunteers. Symptomatic RV infection caused a small increase in IL-1alpha, a modest increase in IL-1beta, and an impressive increase in IL-1ra. Maximal induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta was transiently noted 48 h after RV infection. In contrast, maximal induction of IL-1ra was prolonged appearing 48-72 h after RV infection. These time points corresponded to the periods of peak symptomatology and the onset of symptom resolution, respectively. Western analysis of nasal washings demonstrated that RV stimulated the accumulation of intracellular IL-1ra type I in all and secreted IL-1ra in a subset of volunteers. Unstimulated normal respiratory epithelial cells contained intracellular IL-1ra type I mRNA and protein. RV infection increased the intracellular levels and extracellular transport of this IL-1ra moiety without causing significant changes in the levels of IL-1ra mRNA. IL-1ra may play an important role in the resolution of RV respiratory infections. RV stimulates epithelial cell IL-1ra elaboration, at least in part, via a novel translational and/or posttranslational mechanism. (+info)
Nasal patency and lavage biomarkers in relation to settled dust and cleaning routines in schools.
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the relations between settled dust and cleaning routines in classrooms on one hand, and nasal symptoms, nasal cavity dimensions, and the concentration of selected biomarkers of inflammation in nasal lavage on the other. METHODS: Measurements of settled dust via standardized vacuum cleaning and an investigation of the cleaning routines were performed in 12 randomly selected primary schools in the municipality of Uppsala. Clinical examinations including acoustic rhinometry and nasal lavage were performed in the school environment among 279 school personnel working in the main buildings of the schools. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), lysozyme, and albumin were analyzed in the lavage fluid. The relationships between the medical and hygienic data were analyzed both bivariately and with a multiple regression model controlling for age, gender, smoking, atopy, room temperature, and urban vicinity of the school. RESULTS: The amount of settled dust was positively related to subjective nasal obstruction and smaller nasal cavity dimensions measured with acoustic rhinometry. The noses were less patent, and the levels of ECP or lysozyme in the lavage were increased for the subjects in schools with a lower frequency of floor mopping, a lower frequency of desk cleaning, and where wet mopping was used. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the actual dust levels in Swedish classrooms can affect the occurrence of nasal obstruction among school personnel. A beneficial effect on the clinical signs of the nasal mucosa was observed for a higher frequency of both floor mopping and desk cleaning, whereas the use of wet mopping seemed disadvantageous in comparison with dry mopping. These findings illustrate the need for adequate cleaning procedures to minimize the environmental effects on the airway mucosa. (+info)
Nasal cytokine and chemokine responses in experimental influenza A virus infection: results of a placebo-controlled trial of intravenous zanamivir treatment.
The local immune response to influenza virus infection was characterized by determining cytokine and chemokine levels in serial nasal lavage fluid samples from 15 volunteers experimentally infected with influenza A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1). The study was part of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic effect of intravenous zanamivir (600 mg 2x/day for 5 days), a highly selective inhibitor of influenza A and B virus neuraminidases, on the clinical symptoms of influenza infection. Nasal lavage fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and -1beta increased in response to influenza virus infection and correlated statistically with the magnitude and time course of the symptoms. Treatment with zanamivir prevented the infection and abrogated the local cytokine and chemokine responses. These results reveal a complex interplay of cytokines and chemokines in the development of symptoms and resolution of influenza. (+info)
A randomized clinical trial of mupirocin in the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in human immunodeficiency virus disease.
Seventy-six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage were randomized to treatment groups receiving intranasal mupirocin or placebo twice daily for 5 days. Nasal cultures for S. aureus were obtained at 1, 2, 6, and 10 weeks after therapy. At 1 week, 88% of mupirocin-treated patients had negative nasal cultures compared with 8% in placebo patients (P<.001). The percentage of mupirocin-treated patients with persistently negative nasal cultures decreased over time (63%, 45%, and 29% at 2, 6, and 10 weeks, respectively) but remained significantly greater than the placebo group (3% at 2, 6, and 10 weeks). In mupirocin-treated patients, most (16/19) instances of nasal recolonization were with pretreatment strains (determined by means of by pulsed field gel electrophoresis); mupirocin resistance was not observed. Five days of treatment with mupirocin eliminated S. aureus nasal carriage in HIV-infected patients for several weeks; however, since the effect waned over time, intermittent dosing regimens should be considered for long-term eradication. (+info)
Antioxidant consumption and repletion kinetics in nasal lavage fluid following exposure of healthy human volunteers to ozone.
To obtain information on the real-time events occurring within human respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs) during ozone exposure, sequential nasal lavage was performed on 13 human volunteers exposed on separate occasions to 0.2 parts per million O3 and filtered air (2-h exposures, with intermittent exercise). Nasal lavage was performed and blood samples obtained at four time points throughout each exposure: pre-exposure (Pre-E), 1 h into exposure (1h-E), immediately post-exposure (0h-PE) and 1 h post-exposure (1h-PE). Endobronchial mucosal biopsies were obtained at 1.5 h-post exposure (1.5h-PE). Nasal RTLF neutrophilia was not apparent during, or 1.5 h after, 03 exposure. Furthermore, activation of the pre-existing neutrophil population did not occur. Airway permeability was not altered by this 03 exposure regimen. Sequential lavage resulted in significant washout of RTLF ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, extracellular superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase at 1h-E, 0h-PE and 1.5h-PE relative to baseline Pre-E values. In contrast, RTLF uric acid (UA), total protein and albumin concentrations did not display washout kinetics. Of the antioxidants examined, only UA was clearly depleted by 03, concentrations, falling by 6.22 micromol x L(-1) at 1h-E, compared with 1.61 micromol x L(-1) (p<0.01) during control air exposure. The establishment of a new pseudo-steady-state concentration of RTLF UA (70% of Pre-E values) during the second hour of O3 exposure was coincident with a small but significant increase in plasma UA concentration (19.27 (O3) versus 1.95 micromol x L(-1) (air), p<0.05). These data demonstrate that inhalation of 0.2 parts per million 03 results in the depletion of nasal respiratory tract lining fluid uric acid and that this regional loss of uric acid leads to a small increase in plasma uric acid concentration. Whilst the reaction of uric acid with inspired 03 may confer protection locally, the role of upper airway uric acid as a sink for inhaled O3 is not supported by these findings. (+info)