Goosecoid acts cell autonomously in mesenchyme-derived tissues during craniofacial development.
Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the homeobox gene Goosecoid (Gsc) have multiple craniofacial defects. To understand the mechanisms responsible for these defects, the behavior of Gsc-null cells was examined in morula aggregation chimeras. In these chimeras, Gsc-null cells were marked with beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) activity using the ROSA26 lacZ allele. In addition, mice with a lacZ gene that had been introduced into the Gsc locus were used as a guide to visualize the location of Gsc-expressing cells. In Gsc-null<->wild-type chimeras, tissues that would normally not express Gsc were composed of both Gsc-null and wild-type cells that were well mixed, reflecting the overall genotypic composition of the chimeras. However, craniofacial tissues that would normally express Gsc were essentially devoid of Gsc-null cells. Furthermore, the nasal capsules and mandibles of the chimeras had defects similar to Gsc-null mice that varied in severity depending upon the proportion of Gsc-null cells. These results combined with the analysis of Gsc-null mice suggest that Gsc functions cell autonomously in mesenchyme-derived tissues of the head. A developmental analysis of the tympanic ring bone, a bone that is always absent in Gsc-null mice because of defects at the cell condensation stage, showed that Gsc-null cells had the capacity to form the tympanic ring condensation in the presence of wild-type cells. However, analysis of the tympanic ring bones of 18.5 d.p.c. chimeras suggests that Gsc-null cells were not maintained. The participation of Gsc-null cells in the tympanic ring condensation of chimeras may be an epigenetic phenomenon that results in a local environment in which more precursor cells are present. Thus, the skeletal defects observed in Gsc-null mice may reflect a regional reduction of precursor cells during embryonic development. (+info)
Rhinostomies: an open and shut case?
AIMS: To analyse bone fragments from rhinostomies of patients undergoing revisional dacryocystorhinostomy, looking for evidence of new bone formation. METHODS: 14 consecutive patients undergoing secondary lacrimal surgery were included in this study. In each case the existing rhinostomy was enlarged with bone punches, care being taken to use the punches with the jaws cutting perpendicularly to the edge of the rhinostomy, to allow accurate orientation of the specimens. The fragments were examined histologically for evidence of new bone formation. RESULTS: Histological sections showed fragments of bone with variable fibrosis at the edge of the rhinostomy. There was evidence of only very little new bone formation. CONCLUSION: This study has clearly shown that, at the edge of a rhinostomy, healing is predominantly by fibrosis and there is only very limited new bone formation. (+info)
Location of the glenoid fossa after a period of unilateral masticatory function in young rabbits.
Changes in glenoid fossa position and skull morphology after a period of unilateral masticatory function were studied. The right-side maxillary and mandibular molars in twenty-seven 10-day-old rabbits were ground down under general anaesthesia. The procedure was repeated twice a week, until the rabbits were 50 days old. Fourteen rabbits were then killed and 13 left to grow to age 100 days. Nine 50-day-old and sixteen 100-day-old rabbits with unmodified occlusions served as controls. Three-dimensional measurements were made using a machine-vision technique and a video-imaging camera. The glenoid fossa position become more anterior in both groups of animals subjected to molar grinding as compared with controls (P < 0.01 in the 50-day-old group and P < 0.05 in 100-day-old group). In the 100-day-old group the right-side fossa was also in a more inferior position (P < 0.01). The glenoid fossa was more anteriorly located on the right than on the left side of individual animals in the group in which the right-side molars had been ground down (P < 0.001). (+info)
The prenatal cranial base complex and hand in Turner syndrome.
From early childhood, Turner syndrome patients have a flattened cranial base, maxillary retrognathism, and short hands. There are, however, no studies that show when these genotype-determined abnormalities occur prenatally. The purpose of the present study was to measure craniofacial profile and hand radiographs of second trimester foetuses with Turner syndrome and compare the results with similar measurements from normal foetuses. The subjects consisted of 12 Turner syndrome foetuses, gestational age (GA) varying between 15 and 24 weeks, and crown-rump length (CRL) between 108 and 220 mm. The mid-sagittal block of each cranium was analysed as part of the requested brain analysis (pituitary gland analysis). This block and the right hand from seven foetuses were radiographed, and the skeletal maturity of the cranial base complex, i.e. the cranial base and the maxilla, was evaluated from the profile radiographs. Shape and size measurements in the cranial base were performed, and compared with normal values according to cranial maturity and to CRL. The cranial base angle in Turner syndrome was greater and the maxillary prognathism was reduced compared with the normal group. The dimensions in the cranial complex and in the hand showed that the bone lengths and distances in relation to CRL were generally smaller compared with normal foetuses. This investigation showed that the abnormal shape of the cranial base complex and the short hands in Turner syndrome are present prenatally. (+info)
Bone CT evaluation of nasal cavity of acromegalics--its morphological and surgical implication in comparison to non-acromegalics.
PURPOSE: In order to numerically compare the morphological differences of the nasal cavity and nasal sinus between acromegalics and non-acromegalics, bone window CT scans sliced parallel to the transsphenoidal surgical route were performed. MATERIAL AND CASES: Acromegalic patients had small or large macroadenomas and were 13 (7 men and 6 women) in number, aged 53.2 +/- 16.1 years. Non-acromegalic patients had pituitary tumors and were 44 (21 men and 23 women) in number, aged 52.1 +/- 12.5 years. RESULTS: The results of acromegalics are described in comparison to non-acromegalics in parentheses. a) The width of the surgical corridor: piriform aperture, 27.6 +/- 2.7 (25.9 +/- 2.6) mm; origin of inferior nasal concha, 29.4 +/- 9.4 (26.6 +/- 4.0) mm; and origin of middle nasal concha, 29.8 +/- 3.2 (26.2 +/- 4.2) mm. b) The depth of the surgical corridor: the upper lip thickness, 18.1 +/- 2.7 (13.3 +/- 1.4) mm; the distances between piriform aperture and sphenoid wall, 52.9 +/- 4.6 (49 +/- 4.2) mm; sphenoid wall and sellar floor, 17.3 +/- 4.1 (18.7 +/- 4.1) mm; and sellar floor to dorsum sellae, 17.6 +/- 3.4 (15.6 +/- 4.0) mm. c) Marked carotid prominence: 7/13=53.4% (8/44=18.25%). d) Sinusitis: 8/13=61.5% (12/44=27.3%). DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The data presented above show that morphological differences in bony nasal cavity and soft tissue may be responsible for a deeper and narrower surgical field for acromegalics. Acromegalics had a marked carotid prominence more frequently, which needs special attention to avoid carotid injury, when enlarging the surgical field. Knowing these morphological differences will provide useful information for peri- and intra-operative care. (+info)
The prenatal diagnosis of Binder syndrome before 24 weeks of gestation: case report.
A case of Binder syndrome was diagnosed at 21 weeks of gestation using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound. The first indication of any abnormality was a flattened fetal nose demonstrated in the mid-sagittal plane. Further ultrasound imaging showed the virtual absence of the naso-frontal angle, giving the impression of a flat forehead and small fetal nose. Suspected mild hypertelorism was also seen using transverse and coronal planes. Differential diagnosis of this condition is discussed. (+info)
A critical evaluation of the pitchfork analysis.
The pitchfork analysis has gained increasing acceptance among researchers and clinicians to evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment that can be measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs. It is primarily used in Class II cases to distinguish between the skeletal and dental effects of such treatments. The aim of this study was to conduct an objective evaluation of the pitchfork analysis by comparing cephalometric data obtained by that method with those using the more conventional and established method of Bjork. The pitchfork analysis consistently provided an overestimation of the skeletal effects and an under-estimation of the dental changes. These results indicate that the pitchfork analysis is not sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between the skeletal and dental effects of orthodontic treatment. (+info)
Rapid palatal expansion in mixed dentition using a modified expander: a cephalometric investigation.
The aims of this investigation were to cephalometrically study the short-term skeletal and dental modifications induced by rapid palatal expansion in a sample of 20 patients (10 male, 10 female), aged 6-10 years (mean age 8 years) in mixed dentition with a uni- or bilateral posterior crossbite, a mild skeletal Class II malocclusion, and an increased vertical dimension (FMA, SN/\GoGn), and to compare them with an untreated matched control group of 20 subjects (10 male and 10 female), mean age 8 years. Cephalometric analysis showed that the maxilla displayed a tendency to rotate downwards and backward, resulting in a statistically significant increase of the SN/\PP angle (T0 = 9*95 degrees, T1 = 11*60 degrees, P < 0*01) and the SN-ANS linear value (T0 = 49*50 mm, T1 = 51*10 mm, P < 0*05). In addition, there was a statistically significant alteration of the anterior total facial height N-Me (T0 = 113*15mm, T1 = 114*15 mm, P < 0*05) and for the dental upper molar measurement U6-PP (T0 = 19*70 mm, T1 = 20*30 mm, P < 0*05). The small alterations found in the anterior total facial height and in the sagittal angles agree with previous studies, and suggest that RPE can be also used in subjects with a tendency to vertical growth and a skeletal Class II malocclusion. (+info)