(1/487) A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes.
1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration. (+info)
(2/487) Changes in intracellular Na+ and pH in rat heart during ischemia: role of Na+/H+ exchanger.
The role of the Na+/H+ exchanger in rat hearts during ischemia and reperfusion was investigated by measurements of intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and intracellular and extracellular pH. Under our standard conditions (2-Hz stimulation), 10 min of ischemia caused no significant rise in [Na+]i but an acidosis of 1.0 pH unit, suggesting that the Na+/H+ exchanger was inactive during ischemia. This was confirmed by showing that the Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor methylisobutyl amiloride (MIA) had no effect on [Na+]i or on intracellular pH during ischemia. However, there was a short-lived increase in [Na+]i of 8.2 +/- 0.6 mM on reperfusion, which was reduced by MIA, showing that the Na+/H+ exchanger became active on reperfusion. To investigate the role of metabolic changes, we measured [Na+]i during anoxia. The [Na+]i did not change during 10 min of anoxia, but there was a small, transient rise of [Na+]i on reoxygenation, which was inhibited by MIA. In addition, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger, tested by sodium lactate exposure, was inhibited during anoxia. These results show that the Na+/H+ exchanger is inhibited during ischemia and anoxia, probably by an intracellular metabolic mechanism. The exchanger activates rapidly on reperfusion and can cause a rapid rise in [Na+]i. (+info)
(3/487) Mitotic aberrations induced by carbaryl reflect tyrosine kinase inhibition with coincident up-regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity: implications for coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis.
The insecticide carbaryl and its metabolite 1-naphthol cause partial uncoupling of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts; karyokinesis is blocked in metaphase, the microtubules of the spindle depolymerize and the chromosomes and spindle remnants become displaced to the periphery of the cell. A high frequency of these disturbed cells elongate and a smaller fraction initiate a cleavage furrow. Here, we attempt to determine the potential targets for carbaryl and 1-naphthol in cytokinesis-specific signalling, led by the fact that the potential protein phosphatase inhibitor 1-naphthyl phosphate was previously identified in treated cells. We found that the typical cytological pattern induced by carbaryl and 1-naphthol could be obtained with tyrphostins, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, indicating that the carbaryl-induced effects could be due to tyrosine kinase inhibition. This was confirmed by tyrosine kinase assays showing that carbaryl, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol were equally efficient at inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity as tyrphostin B44(-). As tyrosine kinases can act as regulatory factors in determining dephosphorylation rates, the activities of type-1 (PP1) and type-2A (PP2A) serine/threonine protein phosphatases were also determined. There was a clear up-regulation of the overall PP1/PP2A activities in cells treated with carbaryl, 1-naphthol or tyrphostin B44(-). This stimulation was shown to be indirect because these compounds had no effect on the activity of purified human PP1 in the test tube. 2-Naphthol, which has been found to be less efficient with regard to displacement of chromatin, did not cause up-regulation, but a significant decrease in PP1/PP2A activity. We suggest that a net decrease in tyrosine kinase activity in combination with a net increase in PP1/PP2A activity is a precondition for cell elongation and cytokinesis in mammalian cells and that the corresponding enzymes are targets in the network of activities serving to coordinate karyokinesis and cytokinesis. (+info)
(4/487) Purification and characterization of a secreted laccase of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.
We purified a secreted fungal laccase from filtrates of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici cultures induced with copper and xylidine. The active protein had an apparent molecular mass of 190 kDa and yielded subunits with molecular masses of 60 kDa when denatured and deglycosylated. This laccase had a pI of 5.6 and an optimal pH of 4.5 with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as its substrate. Like other, previously purified laccases, this one contained several copper atoms in each subunit, as determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. The active enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of 2, 6-dimethoxyphenol (Km = 2.6 x 10(-5) +/- 7 x 10(-6) M), catechol (Km = 2.5 x 10(-4) +/- 1 x 10(-5) M), pyrogallol (Km = 3.1 x 10(-4) +/- 4 x 10(-5) M), and guaiacol (Km = 5.1 x 10(-4) +/- 2 x 10(-5) M). In addition, the laccase catalyzed the polymerization of 1, 8-dihydroxynaphthalene, a natural fungal melanin precursor, into a high-molecular-weight melanin and catalyzed the oxidation, or decolorization, of the dye poly B-411, a lignin-like polymer. These findings indicate that this laccase may be involved in melanin polymerization in this phytopathogen's hyphae and/or in lignin depolymerization in its infected plant host. (+info)
(5/487) Demonstration of a coupled metabolism-efflux process at the choroid plexus as a mechanism of brain protection toward xenobiotics.
Brain homeostasis depends on the composition of both brain interstitial fluid and CSF. Whereas the former is largely controlled by the blood-brain barrier, the latter is regulated by a highly specialized blood-CSF interface, the choroid plexus epithelium, which acts either by controlling the influx of blood-borne compounds, or by clearing deleterious molecules and metabolites from CSF. To investigate mechanisms of brain protection at the choroid plexus, the blood-CSF barrier was reconstituted in vitro by culturing epithelial cells isolated from newborn rat choroid plexuses of either the fourth or the lateral ventricle. The cells grown in primary culture on semipermeable membranes established a pure polarized monolayer displaying structural and functional barrier features, (tight junctions, high electric resistance, low permeability to paracellular markers) and maintaining tissue-specific markers (transthyretin) and specific transporters for micronutriments (amino acids, nucleosides). In particular, the high enzymatic drug metabolism capacity of choroid plexus was preserved in the in vitro blood-CSF interface. Using this model, we demonstrated that choroid plexuses can act as an absolute blood-CSF barrier toward 1-naphthol, a cytotoxic, lipophilic model compound, by a coupled metabolism-efflux mechanism. This compound was metabolized in situ via uridine diphosphate glururonosyltransferase-catalyzed conjugation, and the cellular efflux of the glucurono-conjugate was mediated by a transporter predominantly located at the basolateral, i.e., blood-facing membrane. The transport process was temperature-dependent, probenecid-sensitive, and recognized other glucuronides. Efflux of 1-naphthol metabolite was inhibited by intracellular glutathione S-conjugates. This metabolism-polarized efflux process adds a new facet to the understanding of the protective functions of choroid plexuses. (+info)
(6/487) Sulfating-activity and stability of cDNA-expressed allozymes of human phenol sulfotransferase, ST1A3*1 ((213)Arg) and ST1A3*2 ((213)His), both of which exist in Japanese as well as Caucasians.
We recently found single amino acid substitutions ((213)Arg/His and (223)Met/Val) in polymorphic human phenol-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase (SULT: cDNAs encoding ST1A3, P PST or HAST1/2) among Caucasians and African-Americans. In a Japanese population (n = 143), allele frequencies of (213)Arg and (213)His were 83.2 and 16. 8%, respectively, but the (223)Val allele was not found. (213)His homozygosity was reportedly associated with both very low (>7-fold) sulfating activities of p-nitrophenol (at 4 microM) and low thermostability in platelets. Sulfating-activity determinations using recombinant (213)Arg- and (213)His-forms (ST1A3*1 and ST1A3*2, respectively) did not, however, reveal appreciable deficiency in [(35)S]3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)-dependent sulfation of p-nitrophenol (4 microM) by ST1A3*2 (7.5 vs. 10.2 nmol/min/nmol SULT for ST1A3). Kinetic parameters for p-nitrophenol for p-nitrophenol sulfation supported the slight decrease in sulfating activities at 4 microM (K(m), 0.82 vs. 1.75 microM; V(max), 13.2 vs. 13.1 nmol/min/nmol SULT, respectively, for ST1A3*1 and *2). p-Nitrophenyl sulfate-dependent 2-naphthol sulfation by ST1A3*2 was 69% of that by ST1A3*1 (p<0.05). However, ST1A3*2 was remarkably unstable at 45 and 37 degrees C as compared to ST1A3*1. The lower p-nitrophenol sulfating activity of ST1A3*2 may explain the lower platelet p-nitrophenol sulfation in ST1A3*2 homozygotes. Protein instability and ST1A3 gene regulation may be both involved in the polymorphism of p-nitrophenol sulfation in human tissues. (+info)
(7/487) Blockage of skin invasion by schistosome cercariae by serine protease inhibitors.
Invasion of skin by schistosome cercariae is facilitated by a serine protease secreted from the acetabular cells of cercariae in response to skin lipid. Specific inhibitors of the protease, when applied to human skin in formulations designed to retain the inhibitor on and in the upper stratum corneum layers, block cercarial invasion of human skin. Both peptide-based, irreversible inhibitors and non-peptide, reversible inhibitors block cercarial invasion when applied in a propylene glycol:isopropyl alcohol (3:1) formulation in vitro. Arrest of cercarial invasion could be achieved even after immersion of treated skin in water for 2 hr. Peptide-based irreversible inhibitors in the presence of three different Topicare Delivery Compounds optimized arrest of cercarial invasion. The three Topicare Delivery Compounds applied alone prevented 80-100% of cercarial invasion. With inclusion of the inhibitor, there was 97-100% inhibition in vitro. The optimal formulation with inhibitor was then applied to the tails of BALB/c mice, and the mice were exposed to 120 cercariae by tail immersion. With the carrier lotion alone, there was a 50% reduction in worm burden and a 70% reduction in egg burden. When inhibitor was included, an 80% reduction in worm burden and a 92% reduction in egg burden was observed. (+info)
(8/487) Intracellular pH regulation of CA1 neurons in Na(+)/H(+) isoform 1 mutant mice.
To understand the role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) in intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation and neuronal function, we took advantage of natural knockout mice lacking NHE1, the most ubiquitously and densely expressed NHE isoform in the central nervous system (CNS). CA1 neurons from both wild-type (WT) and NHE1 mutant mice were studied by continuous monitoring of pH(i), using the fluorescent indicator carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-1 (SNARF-1) and confocal microscopy. In the nominal absence of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), steady-state pH(i) was higher in WT neurons than in mutant neurons. Using the NH(4)Cl prepulse technique, we also show that H(+) flux in WT neurons was much greater than in mutant neurons. The recovery from acid load was blocked in WT neurons, but not in mutant neurons, by removal of Na(+) from the extracellular solution or by using 100 microM 3-(methylsulfonyl-4-piperidino-benzoyl)-guanidine methanesulfonate (HOE 694) in HEPES buffer. Surprisingly, in the presence of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), the difference in H(+) flux between WT and mutant mice was even more exaggerated, with a difference of more than 250 microM/s between them at pH 6.6. H(+) flux in CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) was responsive to diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonate (DIDS) in the WT but not in the mutant. We conclude that (a) the absence of NHE1 in the mutant neurons tended to cause lower steady-state pH(i) and, perhaps more importantly, markedly reduced the rate of recovery from an acid load; and (b) this difference in the rate of recovery between mutant and WT neurons was surprisingly larger in the presence, rather than in the absence, of HCO(3)(-), indicating that the presence of NHE1 is essential for the regulation and/or functional expression of both HCO(3)(-)-dependent and -independent transporters in neurons. (+info)