Naturally induced secretions of the potato cyst nematode co-stimulate the proliferation of both tobacco leaf protoplasts and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Naturally induced secretions from infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis co-stimulate the proliferation of tobacco leaf protoplasts in the presence of the synthetic phytohormones alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). With the use of a protoplast-based bioassay, a low-molecular-weight peptide(s) (< 3 kDa) was shown to be responsible for the observed effect. This mitogenic oligopeptide(s) is functionally dissimilar to auxin and cytokinin and, in addition, it does not change the sensitivity of the protoplasts toward these phytohormones. In combination with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA), cyst nematode secretions also co-stimulated mitogenesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The stimulation of plant cells isolated from nontarget tissue--these nematodes normally invade the roots of potato plants--suggests the activation of a general signal transduction mechanism(s) by an oligopeptide(s) secreted by the nematode. Whether a similar oligopeptide-induced mechanism underlies human PBMC activation remains to be investigated. Reactivation of the cell cycle is a crucial event in feeding cell formation by cyst nematodes. The secretion of a mitogenic low-molecular-weight peptide(s) by infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode could contribute to the redifferentiation of plant cells into such a feeding cell. (+info)
Auxin-induced K+ channel expression represents an essential step in coleoptile growth and gravitropism.
Auxin-induced growth of coleoptiles depends on the presence of potassium and is suppressed by K+ channel blockers. To evaluate the role of K+ channels in auxin-mediated growth, we isolated and functionally expressed ZMK1 and ZMK2 (Zea mays K+ channel 1 and 2), two potassium channels from maize coleoptiles. In growth experiments, the time course of auxin-induced expression of ZMK1 coincided with the kinetics of coleoptile elongation. Upon gravistimulation of maize seedlings, ZMK1 expression followed the gravitropic-induced auxin redistribution. K+ channel expression increased even before a bending of the coleoptile was observed. The transcript level of ZMK2, expressed in vascular tissue, was not affected by auxin. In patch-clamp studies on coleoptile protoplasts, auxin increased K+ channel density while leaving channel properties unaffected. Thus, we conclude that coleoptile growth depends on the transcriptional up-regulation of ZMK1, an inwardly rectifying K+ channel expressed in the nonvascular tissue of this organ. (+info)
Expression of AtPRP3, a proline-rich structural cell wall protein from Arabidopsis, is regulated by cell-type-specific developmental pathways involved in root hair formation.
The tightly regulated expression patterns of structural cell wall proteins in several plant species indicate that they play a crucial role in determining the extracellular matrix structure for specific cell types. We demonstrate that AtPRP3, a proline-rich cell wall protein in Arabidopsis, is expressed in root-hair-bearing epidermal cells at the root/shoot junction and within the root differentiation zone of light-grown seedlings. Several lines of evidence support a direct relationship between AtPRP3 expression and root hair development. AtPRP3/beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression increased in roots of transgenic seedlings treated with either 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (alpha-NAA), compounds known to promote root hair formation. In the presence of 1-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, AtPRP3/GUS expression was strongly reduced, but could be rescued by co-addition of ACC or alpha-NAA to the growth medium. In addition, AtPRP3/GUS activity was enhanced in ttg and gl2 mutant backgrounds that exhibit ectopic root hairs, but was reduced in rhd6 and 35S-R root-hair-less mutant seedlings. These results indicate that AtPRP3 is regulated by developmental pathways involved in root hair formation, and are consistent with AtPRP3's contributing to cell wall structure in Arabidopsis root hairs. (+info)
Quantitative measurement of the course of bean callus differentiation.
Two strains of callus have been isolated from bean hypocotyl and grown on a defined maintenance medium supplemented with 2 mg/l. 2:4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2:4D) and 2% sucrose. Root initiation was observed in one strain and formation of nodules containing xylem and phloem in both strains after transfer to an induction medium supplemented with 1 mg/l. naphthyleneacetic acid, 0-2 mg/l. kinetin and 3% sucrose, after 3 transfers to maintenance medium. The number of nodules per gramme increased 10-fold between 6 and 12 days after transfer, and thereafter remained constant. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity rose to a maximum value when the rate of nodule formation was greatest, and decreased after the maximum nodule concentration was reached. The final constant value for PAL activity was above that of callus grown on maintenance medium. Beta I leads to 3 glucan synthetase activity rose to a maximum 15 days after transfer, and then fell gradually to a level above that measured in callus on maintenance medium. Callus was transferred from maintenance medium after 3, 4, 5 and 6 transfers. The concentration of nodules after 21 days on induction medium decreased as the callus was kept in culture. No further differentiation could be induced after 6 transfers. The fall in nodule formation was paralleled by a decrease in PAL and betaI leads to 3 glucan synthetase activities measured 21 days after transfer. (+info)
ABP1 is required for organized cell elongation and division in Arabidopsis embryogenesis.
To directly address the function of a putative auxin receptor designated ABP1, a reverse genetic approach was taken to identify and characterize ABP1 mutant alleles in Arabidopsis. A homozygous null mutation in ABP1 confers embryo lethality. Null mutant embryos develop normally until the early stages of the globular embryo but are unable to make the transition to a bilaterally symmetrical structure because cells fail to elongate. Cell division was also aberrant both in the suspensor and embryo proper. Antisense suppression of ABP1 in tobacco cells causes slow proliferation and eliminates auxin-induced cell elongation and reduces cell division. The complete lack of auxin-inducible elongation in individual cells confirms the results observed in embryos, indicates a cell autonomous function, and, taken together with biochemical evidence that ABP1 binds auxins, suggests that ABP1 mediates auxin-induced cell elongation and, directly or indirectly, cell division. (+info)
Kinetics of determination in the differentiation of isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans to tracheary elements.
Mechanically isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans L. cv Envy differentiate to tracheary elements when cultured in inductive medium containing 0.5 micromolar alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 micromolar benzyladenine. The cells do not differentiate when cultured in medium in which the concentration of auxin and/or cytokinin has been reduced to 0.005 micromolar. Cells require an initial 24-hour exposure to inductive cytokinin and 56-hour exposure to inductive auxin for differentiation at 72 hours of culture. Freshly isolated Zinnia cells can be maintained in medium having low concentrations of both auxin and cytokinin for only 1 day without significant loss of potential to differentiate upon transfer to inductive medium. Initial culture for up to 2 days in medium having high auxin and low cytokinin, or low auxin and high cytokinin, allows full differentiation on the third day after transfer to inductive medium and potentiates the early differentiation of some cells. (+info)
Correlation between polyamines and pyrrolidine alkaloids in developing tobacco callus.
Since the diamine putrescine can be metabolized into the pyrrolidine ring of tobacco alkaloids as well as into the higher polyamines, we have investigated the quantitative relationship between putrescine and these metabolites in tobacco callus cultured in vitro. We measured levels of free and conjugated putrescine and spermidine, and pyrrolidine alkaloids, as well as activities of the putrescine-biosynthetic enzymes arginine and ornithine decarboxylase. In callus grown on high (11.5 micromolar) alpha-naphthalene acetic acid, suboptimal for alkaloid biosynthesis, putrescine and spermidine conjugates were the main putrescine derivatives, while in callus grown on low (1.5 micromolar) alpha-naphthalene acetic acid, optimal for alkaloid formation, nornicotine and nicotine were the main putrescine derivatives. During callus development, a significant negative correlation was found between levels of perchloric acid-soluble putrescine conjugates and pyrrolidine alkaloids. The results suggest that bound putrescine can act as a pool for pyrrolidine alkaloid formation in systems where alkaloid biosynthesis is active. In addition, changes in arginine decarboxylase activity corresponding to increased alkaloid levels suggest a role for this enzyme in the overall biosynthesis of pyrrolidine alkaloids. (+info)
Effect of top excision and replacement by 1-naphthylacetic acid on partition and flow of potassium in tobacco plants.
The effect of removal of the shoot apex of 92-d-old tobacco plants and its replacement by 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) on sink-source relationships and on the flows and partitioning of potassium and water has been studied over a short-term period of 7 d (intact control plants) or 8 d (decapitated and NAA-treated plants). For determining flows an upper, middle and lower stratum of three leaves each were analysed. Within the study period three new leaves were formed in control plants and 57.7% of the total dry matter increment during the experimental period was allocated to the apex and these newly formed leaves. An even higher proportion of the K+ taken up (93.8%) was deposited in these organs and this was imported via xylem (72%) and phloem (28%). Only 18.7% and 9.8% of the total dry matter increment were found in the previously present upper leaves and the roots, respectively, and substantial net K+ export occurred from middle and lower leaves and roots. Decapitation removed the dominant phloem sink and caused marked changes in sink-source relationships. After decapitation the net increase in root dry matter was twice that of control plants. 56.2% of the total net increments in dry matter and 70% of the absorbed K+ were deposited in upper leaves (below the excised apex). There was only slight net K+ export from the middle leaves. Application of NAA on the cut surface of the stem stump did not change the growth of plants that much, apart from a substantial increase in stem growth, correspondingly it stimulated the partitioning of K+ into the upper leaves and most dramatically into the stem, which deposited 64.5% or 27% of the K+ uptake, respectively. In these plants K+ uptake was increased and the K+ concentrations in upper, middle and lower leaves were increased from 4.7, 5.4 and 5.6 to 5.1, 6.1 and 6.1% of dry matter, respectively. Possible mechanisms of this effect of NAA on the improvement of K+ concentration in tobacco leaves are discussed in detail. (+info)