Synthetic and natural polycationic polymer nanoparticles interact selectively with fluid-phase domains of DMPC lipid bilayers.
Polycationic polymers are known to disrupt lipid bilayers. In this letter, we report the dependence of this disruption on the lipid structural phase. DMPC bilayers are exposed to two polycationic polymeric nanoparticles, PAMAM dendrimers and MSI-78. We find that regions of the bilayer that are in the gel phase are unaffected by the presence of polymers, whereas the liquid phase is disrupted. (+info)
Body distribution and in situ evading of phagocytic uptake by macrophages of long-circulating poly (ethylene glycol) cyanoacrylate-co-n-hexadecyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles.
AIM: To investigate the body distribution in mice of [14C]-labeled poly methoxyethyleneglycol cyanoacrylate-co-n-hexadecyl cyanoacrylate (PEG-PHDCA) nanoparticles and in situ evading of phagocytic uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages. METHODS: PEG-PHDCA copolymers were synthesized by condensation of methoxypolyethylene glycol cyanoacetate with [14C]-hexadecyl-cyanoacetate. [14C]-nanoparticles were prepared using the nanoprecipitation/solvent diffusion method, while fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by incorporating rhodamine B. In situ phagocytic uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry. Body distribution in mice was evaluated by determining radioactivity in tissues using a scintillation method. RESULTS: Phagocytic uptake by macrophages can be efficiently evaded by fluorescent PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles. After 48 h, 31% of the radioactivity of the stealth [14C]-PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles after iv injection was still found in blood, whereas non-stealth PHDCA nanoparticles were cleaned up from the bloodstream in a short time. The distribution of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles and non-stealth PHDCA nanoparticals in mice was poor in lung, kidney, and brain, and a little higher in hearts. Lymphatic accumulation was unusually high for both stealth and non-stealth nanoparticles, typical of lymphatic capture. The accumulation of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles in the spleen was 1.7 times as much as that of non-stealth PHDCA (P< 0.01). But the accumulation of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles in the liver was 0.8 times as much as that of non-stealth PHDCA (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: PEGylation leads to long-circulation of nanoparticles in the bloodstream, and splenotropic accumulation opens up the potential for further development of spleen-targeted drug delivery. (+info)
Enhancing the photoluminescence of peptide-coated nanocrystals with shell composition and UV irradiation.
The composition and structure of inorganic shells grown over CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal dots and rods were optimized to yield enhanced photoluminescence properties after ligand exchange followed by coating with phytochelatin-related peptides. We show that, in addition to the peptides imparting superior colloidal properties and providing biofunctionality in a single-step reaction, the improved shells and pretreatment with UV irradiation resulted in high quantum yields for the nanocrystals in water. Moreover, peptide coating caused a noticeable red-shift in the absorption and emission spectra for one of the tested shells, suggesting that exciton-molecular orbital (X-MO) coupling might take place in these hybrid inorganic-organic composite materials. (+info)
Surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles using hetero-bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) spacer for intracellular tracking and delivery.
For the development of surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles as cellular probes and delivery agents, we have synthesized hetero-bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW 1500) having a thiol group on one terminus and a reactive functional group on the other for use as a flexible spacer. Coumarin, a model fluorescent dye, was conjugated to one end of the PEG spacer and gold nanoparticles were modified with coumarin-PEG-thiol. Surface attachment of coumarin through the PEG spacer decreased the fluorescence quenching effect of gold nanoparticles. The results of cellular cytotoxicity and fluorescence confocal analyses showed that the PEG spacer-modified nanoparticles were essentially non-toxic and could be efficiently internalized in the cells within 1 hour of incubation. Intracellular particle tracking using a Keck 3-D Fusion Microscope System showed that the functionalized gold nanoparticles were rapidly internalized in the cells and localized in the peri-nuclear region. Using the PEG spacer, the gold nano-platform can be conjugated with a variety of biologically relevant ligands such as fluorescent dyes, antibodies, etc in order to target, probe, and induce a stimulus at the target site. (+info)
Coarse grained protein-lipid model with application to lipoprotein particles.
A coarse-grained model for molecular dynamics simulations is extended from lipids to proteins. In the framework of such models pioneered by Klein, atoms are described group-wise by beads, with the interactions between beads governed by effective potentials. The extension developed here is based on a coarse-grained lipid model developed previously by Marrink et al., although future versions will reconcile the approach taken with the systematic approach of Klein and other authors. Each amino acid of the protein is represented by two coarse-grained beads, one for the backbone (identical for all residues) and one for the side-chain (which differs depending on the residue type). The coarse-graining reduces the system size about 10-fold and allows integration time steps of 25-50 fs. The model is applied to simulations of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles involving water, lipids, and two primarily helical proteins. These particles are an ideal test system for the extension of coarse-grained models. Our model proved to be reliable in maintaining the shape of preassembled particles and in reproducing the overall structural features of high-density lipoproteins accurately. Microsecond simulations of lipoprotein assembly revealed the formation of a protein-lipid complex in which two proteins are attached to either side of a discoidal lipid bilayer. (+info)
Electrochemistry of xanthine oxidase and its interaction with nitric oxide.
With the help of nanocrystalline TiO2, the direct electrochemistry of xanthine oxidase (XOD) was achieved and two pairs of redox waves were observed. The interaction between XOD and nitric oxide (NO) was also investigated. The experimental results reveal that NO can be reduced at a XOD-nano TiO2 film modified electrode. When the NO concentration was low, the reduced product, HNO, would inactivate the protein. However, when the NO concentration was high, HNO would continue to react with NO to form N2O2- and N3O3-, which would not inhibit XOD, and thus the amount of active protein did not decrease any further. (+info)
Calixarene-encapsulated nanoparticles: self-assembly into functional nanomaterials.
Calixarenes are excellent surfactants for enhancing the dispersion and self-assembly of metal nanoparticles into well-defined structures, particularly those with unit length scales in the 10-100 nm size range. Particles within these ensembles are strongly coupled, giving rise to unique collective optical or magnetic properties. The self-assembled nanostructures described in this feature article include 2D arrays of colloidal Au nanoparticles with size-dependent plasmonic responses, and sub-100 nm Co nanoparticle rings with chiral magnetic states. These nanoparticle assemblies may be further developed for applications in chemical sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and as binary elements for nonvolatile memory, respectively. (+info)
Although nanotechnology has provided a rich variety of nanomaterials (1-100 nm) for in vivo medical applications, the blood compatibility of all these nanobiomaterials is still largely unexamined. Here, we report the preparation of blood-compatible carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that potentially represent the building blocks for nanodevices having in vivo applications. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thromboelastography (TEG) studies prove that heparinization can significantly enhance the blood compatibility of nanomaterials. (+info)