(1/1029) Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat.
The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination. (+info)
(2/1029) Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys.
8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management. (+info)
(3/1029) Reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior by drug-associated discriminative stimuli after prolonged extinction in the rat.
Clinical observations suggest that stimuli associated with the availability or consumption of ethanol can evoke subjective feelings of craving and trigger episodes of relapse in abstinent alcoholics. To study the motivational significance of alcohol-related environmental cues experimentally, the effects of discriminative stimuli previously predictive of alcohol availability on the reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior were examined. Wistar rats were trained to lever-press for 10% (w/v) ethanol or water in the presence of distinct auditory cues. The rats were then subjected to an extinction phase where lever presses had no scheduled consequences. After extinction, the animals were exposed to the respective auditory cues without the availability of ethanol or water. Neither the ethanol (SA+) nor water-associated (SA-) auditory cue increased responding over extinction levels. In contrast, subsequent presentation of an olfactory cue associated with ethanol (SO+), but not a water-associated (SO-) cue significantly reinstated lever pressing behavior in the absence of the primary reinforcer. Moreover, responding elicited by the concurrent presentation of the SO+ and SA+ was selectively attenuated by the opiate antagonist naltrexone (0.25 mg/kg; s.c.). The results suggest that ethanol-associated cues can reinstate extinguished ethanol-seeking behavior in rats, but that the efficacy of these stimuli may be modality-specific. In addition, the present procedures may be useful for studying neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. (+info)
(4/1029) Opioidergic modulation of voltage-activated K+ currents in magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus in rat.
Opioidergic modulation plays an important role in the control of oxytocin and vasopressin release by magnocellular neurons (MCNs) in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. We have used whole cell patch-clamp recording in acute slices of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus to study opioidergic modulation of voltage-dependent K+ currents in MCNs that are involved in release activity. The mu-receptor agonist D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO, 2 microM) affected K+ currents in 55% of magnocellular neurons recorded from. In these putative oxytocinergic cells, DAMGO increased the delayed rectifier current (IK(V)) amplitude by approximately 50% without significant effects on its activation kinetics. The transient A current (IA) was enhanced by DAMGO by approximately 36%. Its inactivation kinetic was accelerated slightly while the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation was shifted by -6 mV to more negative potentials. All DAMGO effects were blocked by the preferential non-kappa-opioid antagonist naloxone (10 microM). The kappa-opioid agonist trans-(+/-)-3, 4-dichloro-N-methyl-N(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide (U50,488; 10 microM) strongly suppressed IK(V) by approximately 57% and evoked a 20-mV hyperpolarizing shift and an acceleration of activation in both, DAMGO-sensitive and -insensitive putative vasopressinergic MCNs. U50,488 reduced IA by approximately 29% and tau of inactivation by -20% in DAMGO-sensitive cells. In contrast, in DAMGO-insensitive cells U50,488 increased IA by approximately 23% and strongly accelerated inactivation (tau -44%). The effects of U50,488 were suppressed by the selective kappa-receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (5 microM). We conclude that mu- and kappa-opioidergic inputs decrease and increase excitability of oxytocinergic MCNs, respectively, through modulation of voltage-dependent K+ currents. In vasopressinergic MCNs, kappa-opioidergic inputs differentially modulate these K+ currents. The modulation of K+ currents is assumed to significantly contribute to opioidergic control of hormone release by MCNs within the supraoptic nucleus and from the axon terminals in the neural lobe. (+info)
(5/1029) Effects of prophylactic nalmefene on the incidence of morphine-related side effects in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia.
BACKGROUND: Opioid-related side effects associated with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia can be reduced by a low-dose naloxone infusion. The influence of nalmefene, a pure opioid antagonist with a longer duration of action, on opioid-related side effects has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine the dose-response relation for nalmefene for the prevention of morphine-related side effects in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. METHODS: One hundred twenty women undergoing lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. General anesthesia was induced using thiopental and rocuronium and maintained with desflurane, nitrous oxide, and fentanyl or sufentanil. All patients received neostigmine and glycopyrrolate to reverse residual neuromuscular blockade. No prophylactic antiemetics were administered. At the end of surgery, patients were randomized to receive saline, 15 microg nalmefene, or 25 microg nalmefene intravenously. The need for antiemetic and antipruritic drugs and the total consumption of morphine during the 24-h study were recorded. The incidences of postoperative nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and pain were recorded 30 min after patients were admitted to the postanesthesia care unit. In addition, patient remembrance of these side effects was noted at 24 h after operation. RESULTS: The need for antiemetic and antipruritic medications during the 24-h study period was significantly lower in the patients receiving nahmefene compared with those receiving placebo. However, the need to treat side effects was similar in the two nahmefene groups. Prophylactic administration of nalmefene reduced the patients remembrance of nausea and itching as assessed 24 h after operation. Although the total consumption of morphine during the 24-h study period was similar in the three groups, retrospectively patients who received nalmefene characterized their pain as less severe in the previous 24 h. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, prophylactic administration of nalmefene significantly decreased the need for antiemetics and antipruritic medications in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. (+info)
(6/1029) Opioid-induced second window of cardioprotection: potential role of mitochondrial KATP channels.
Opioids have been previously shown to confer short-term cardioprotection against a prolonged ischemic insult. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine whether opioids can induce a delayed or "second window" of cardioprotection and to assess the potential involvement of the mitochondrial KATP channel. All rats were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion (I/R). Control animals, injected with saline 24 hours before I/R, elicited an infarct size/area at risk (IS/AAR) of 62.9+/-3.4. TAN-67, a delta1-opioid receptor agonist, was administered 10 or 30 mg/kg IP 12, 24, 48, or 72 hours before I/R. TAN-67 (10 mg/kg) 12- or 24-hour pretreatment did not significantly reduce IS/AAR (62.1+/-6.3 and 43.3+/-7.3, respectively). Similarly, 12-hour pretreatment with TAN-67 (30 mg/kg) did not reduce IS/AAR (60.0+/-5.6); however, 24-hour pretreatment significantly reduced IS/AAR (34.5+/-5.9). Forty-eight-hour pretreatment with TAN-67 maximally reduced IS/AAR (29.2+/-7.0), and opioid-induced cardioprotection was lost after 72-hour pretreatment (61.7+/-3.8). TAN-67-induced cardioprotection could be abolished by pretreatment with the selective delta1-opioid receptor antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone, BNTX, administered either 30 minutes before TAN-67 given 48 hours before I/R or 10 minutes before I/R in rats previously treated for 48 hours with TAN-67 (59.6+/-3.1 and 58.7+/-3.5, respectively). The involvement of the KATP channel was investigated with 2 inhibitors: glibenclamide, a nonselective KATP channel inhibitor, and 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, selective for the mitochondrial KATP channel in rabbits. Glibenclamide, administered 30 minutes before I/R in 48-hour TAN-67-pretreated rats, completely abolished cardioprotection (60. 4+/-3.2). Similarly, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, administered 5 minutes before I/R in rats pretreated 48 hours previously with TAN-67, completely abolished cardioprotection (57.8+/-2.5). These results suggest that delta1-opioid receptor stimulation, 24 to 48 hours before an ischemic insult, produces a delayed cardioprotective effect that is possibly the result of mitochondrial KATP channel activation. (+info)
(7/1029) Spinal blockade of opioid receptors prevents the analgesia produced by TENS in arthritic rats.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used for relief of pain. The literature on the clinical application of TENS is extensive. However, surprisingly few reports have addressed the neurophysiological basis for the actions of TENS. The gate control theory of pain is typically used to explain the actions of high-frequency TENS, whereas, low-frequency TENS is typically explained by release of endogenous opioids. The current study investigated the role of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors in antihyperalgesia produced by low- and high-frequency TENS by using an animal model of inflammation. Antagonists to mu (naloxone), delta (naltrinodole), or kappa (nor-binaltorphimine) opioid receptors were delivered to the spinal cord by microdialysis. Joint inflammation was induced by injection of kaolin and carrageenan into the knee-joint cavity. Withdrawal latency to heat was assessed before inflammation, during inflammation, after drug (or artificial cerebral spinal fluid as a control) administration, and after drug (or artificial cerebral spinal fluid) administration + TENS. Either high- (100 Hz) or low- frequency (4 Hz) TENS produced approximately 100% inhibition of hyperalgesia. Low doses of naloxone, selective for mu opioid receptors, blocked the antihyperalgesia produced by low-frequency TENS. High doses of naloxone, which also block delta and kappa opioid receptors, prevented the antihyperalgesia produced by high-frequency TENS. Spinal blockade of delta opioid receptors dose-dependently prevented the antihyperalgesia produced by high-frequency TENS. In contrast, blockade of kappa opioid receptors had no effect on the antihyperalgesia produced by either low- or high-frequency TENS. Thus, low-frequency TENS produces antihyperalgesia through mu opioid receptors and high-frequency TENS produces antihyperalgesia through delta opioid receptors in the spinal cord. (+info)
(8/1029) Analgesia-producing mechanism of processed Aconiti tuber: role of dynorphin, an endogenous kappa-opioid ligand, in the rodent spinal cord.
The analgesia-producing mechanism of processed Aconiti tuber was examined using rodents whose nociceptive threshold was decreased by loading repeated cold stress (RCS). The antinociceptive effect of processed Aconiti tuber (0.3 g/kg, p.o.) in RCS-loaded mice was antagonized by pretreatment with a kappa-opioid antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), and was abolished by an intrathecal injection of anti-dynorphin antiserum (5 microg). The Aconiti tuber-induced antinociception was inhibited by both dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and a dopamine D2 antagonist, sulpiride (10 mg/kg, i.p.), in RCS-loaded mice, and it was eliminated by both an electric lesion of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (HARN) and a highly selective dopamine D2 antagonist, eticlopride (0.05 microg), administered into the HARN in RCS-loaded rats. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of processed Aconiti tuber was produced via the stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors by dynorphin released in the spinal cord. It was also shown that dopamine D2 receptors in the HARN were involved in the expression of the analgesic activity of processed Aconiti tuber. (+info)