Multicenter study of a frozen glove to prevent docetaxel-induced onycholysis and cutaneous toxicity of the hand.
PURPOSE: Onycholysis and skin toxicity occur in approximately 30% of patients treated with docetaxel. We investigated the efficacy and safety of an Elasto-Gel (84400 APT Cedex, Akromed, France) frozen glove (FG) for the prevention of docetaxel-induced onycholysis and skin toxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients receiving docetaxel 75 mg/m2 alone or in combination chemotherapy were eligible for this case-control study. Each patient wore an FG for a total of 90 minutes on the right hand. The left hand was not protected and acted as the control. Onycholysis and skin toxicity were assessed at each cycle by National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and documented by photography. Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank test was used. RESULTS: Between August 2002 and September 2003, 45 patients were evaluated. Onycholysis and skin toxicity were significantly lower in the FG-protected hand compared with the control hand (P = .0001). Onycholysis was grade (G) 0 in 89% v 49% and G1 to 2 in 11% v 51% for the FG-protected hand and the control hand, respectively. Skin toxicity was G0 in 73% v 41% and G1 to 2 in 27% v 59% for the FG-protected and the control hand, respectively. Median time to nail and skin toxicity occurrence was not significantly different between the FG-protected and the control hand, respectively (106 v 58 days for nail toxicity; 57 v 58 days for skin toxicity). Five patients (11%) experienced discomfort due to cold intolerance. CONCLUSION: FG significantly reduces the nail and skin toxicity associated with docetaxel and provides a new tool in supportive care management to improve a patient's quality of life. (+info)
Nail disorders in a woman treated with ixabepilone for metastatic breast cancer.
Ixabepilone (Ix) (BMS-247550) is a potent member of a new class of microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agents known as epothilones. In pre-clinical studies, Ix has shown anticancer activity against several cancer types, including paclitaxel-resistant models, both in vitro and in vivo. The major toxicities associated with Ix are myelosuppression, sensory neuropathy and neutropenia. Other minor side-effects include asthenia/fatigue, stomatitis, anorexia, alopecia, skin reaction, hypersensitivity reactions and a fluid-retention syndrome. Although Ix is functionally correlated to taxanes, no previous evidence exists regarding Ix-related nail disorders. Here, we report a case of a 59-year-old woman treated with Ix at 40 mg/m2 day 1 q 21 days who, after 8 cycles of therapy, developed onycholysis and subungual hemorrhagic bullas in the fingernails. (+info)
Laugier-Hunziker pigmentation (LHP) is an acquired disorder of hypermelanosis characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. LHP may resemble various disorders characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation. A 58-year-old lady presented with progressively increasing number of variable sized, hyperpigmented macules over the lips, fingers, toes and nails. There was no family history of similar illness. Systemic examination and all relevant investigations were within normal limits. Histopathology of a skin lesion had features consistent with LHP. The diagnosis of LHP must be made only after relevant investigations to rule out any associated systemic involvement. This case further highlights that LHP is not restricted to European countries. (+info)
Nail changes and disorders among the elderly.
Nail disorders are frequent among the geriatric population. This is due in part to the impaired circulation and in particular, susceptibility of the senile nail to fungal infections, faulty biomechanics, neoplasms, concurrent dermatological or systemic diseases, and related treatments. With aging, the rate of growth, color, contour, surface, thickness, chemical composition and histology of the nail unit change. Age associated disorders include brittle nails, trachyonychia, onychauxis, pachyonychia, onychogryphosis, onychophosis, onychoclavus, onychocryptosis, onycholysis, infections, infestations, splinter hemorrhages, subungual hematoma, subungual exostosis and malignancies. Awareness of the symptoms, signs and treatment options for these changes and disorders will enable us to assess and manage the conditions involving the nails of this large and growing segment of the population in a better way. (+info)
Topical calcipotriol therapy in nail psoriasis: a study of 24 cases.
There are few reports regarding the treatment of nail psoriasis with topical calcipotriol. We undertook a case series study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of calcipotriol ointment (50 microg/g) in the treatment of nail psoriasis in 24 patients. This study involved 19 women and 5 men with nail psoriasis referred to Dermatology clinics of Razi hospital. The duration of trial was from October 2002 to September 2004. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before entering into the study. The patients applied calcipotriol ointment to the affected nails twice daily without occlusion for 3 months. Patients were seen by two academic dermatologists initially, after 2 weeks, and then at monthly intervals. The efficacy and safety were clinically assessed and any side effect was recorded. Patients who showed 50 percent or greater reduction in the baseline subungual thickness in at least one nail were considered to be responders and were offered continuation of therapy for an additional 2 months. After discontinuation of therapy, followup visits were performed at 1 and 2 months. After 3 months of therapy, fourteen patients showed significant clinical improvement, two of them were completely free from nail lesions after 5 months. Calcipotriol was particularly effective in subungual hyperkeratosis, onycholysis, and discoloration. In four patients fingertip tenderness and in one case the pain of involved distal phalanx were significantly reduced. No clinical response was observed in four patients. Only two cases showed adverse reactions. Topical Calcipotriol is an effective treatment for nail psoriasis and can be considered to be a safe topical treatment in chronic cases; its high tolerability allows prolonged usage without severe side effects. (+info)
Colour duplex sonography of finger arteries in vasculitis and in systemic sclerosis.
CASE REPORTS: Three patients-two with Wegener's granulomatosis and one with an overlap syndrome of rheumatoid vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome-are described. All patients experienced a sudden onset of Raynaud's phenomenon or acrocyanosis when they had a flare of their disease. DISCUSSION: Ultrasonography (US) showed dark (hypoechoic) arteries without colour signals, resembling the US pattern of embolism. In contrast, US in patients with systemic sclerosis is entirely different, delineating a smaller artery lumen, reduced pulsation, and thickened, slightly hyperechoic artery walls. (+info)
Two cases of subungual glomus tumor.
Glomus tumors are uncommon, small, painful, and usually benign hamartomas arising from the arterial end of the glomus body. They often present early in the subungual stage because of intense pain. Two female patients with subungual glomus tumor are reported here. The intense pain associated with this tumor had led to disuse atrophy of the upper limb in one case. Hildreth's sign and Love's test were positive in both, but imaging did not help in preoperative diagnosis. Tumors were resected by transungual approach, leaving a 3-mm-wide margin. There was no recurrence after 1-year follow-up in both instances. (+info)
A mutation in the hair matrix and cuticle keratin KRTHB5 gene causes ectodermal dysplasia of hair and nail type.
BACKGROUND: Ectodermal dysplasias are developmental disorders affecting tissues of ectodermal origin. To date, four different types of ectodermal dysplasia involving only hair and nails have been described. In an effort to understand the molecular bases of this form of ectodermal dysplasia, large Pakistani consanguineous kindred with multiple affected individuals has been ascertained from a remote region in Pakistan. OBJECTIVE: To identify the gene underlying the phenotype. METHODS: Microsatellite markers were genotyped in candidate regions and two point and multipoint parametric linkage analysis carried out. RESULTS: The disease locus was mapped to a 16.6 centimorgan region on chromosome 12q12-q14.1 (Zmax = 8.2), which harbours six type II hair keratin genes. DNA sequence analysis revealed a homozygous missense mutation in the hair matrix and cuticle keratin KRTHB5, leading to histidine substitution of a conserved arginine residue (R78H) located in the head domain. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides the first direct evidence relating to the molecular pathogenesis of pure hair-nail ectodermal dysplasias. (+info)