Erosion of nails following thallium poisoning: a case report. (33/170)

This case report describes a patient with thallium poisoning caused by repeated exposure to low doses of thallium. Alopecia and nail changes were the most prominent features of this case. There was dystrophy of nails in the form of whitish lunular stripes. This is the first report of complete erosion of proximal parts of nails following thallium poisoning. This case is the first report of thallium poisoning from India occurring from repeated low dose exposure.  (+info)

Nail fold videocapillaroscopy in mixed cryoglobulinaemia. (34/170)

BACKGROUND: Nail fold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) has been extensively used to examine morphological and functional changes of microcirculation in connective tissue diseases. The nutritional circulation that depends on tissue capillaries, can be expected to be significantly impacted in mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC). METHODS: Using NVC, we evaluated 29 patients with MC (19 women), mean age 66 years (range 40-83). They included 28 hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive patients-14 genotype 1b, 10 genotype 2a 2c, two genotype 4, two with undetermined genotype. Of them, 18 had type II (IgMk-IgG) MC and 11 had type III. All patients were symptomatic, presenting with weakness (24 of 29 patients), arthralgia (24), purpura (16), peripheral neuropathy (20), Raynaud's phenomenon (8), hypertension (19) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) (9). The nail fold capillaries of four fingers per hand were examined using a videomicroscope. RESULTS: Of the 29 patients, 27 had morphological abnormalities (including tortuosity and apical enlargement), 18 had capillaries with deeply altered orientations, 17 had shortened capillaries and 20 neoangiogenetic phenomena. These four types of capillary abnormalities were simultaneously present in 10, suggesting this combination to be a characteristic pattern in MC. Less common alterations included haemorrhages (10 cases), enlarged and giant capillaries (2) and avascular areas (2). The patients with MC-associated MPGN had a significantly greater number of capillary abnormalities (mean 4.5, range 4-6) than non-nephritic patients (mean 3.5, range 1-6, P = 0.01). The number of capillary abnormalities was not related to the presence of Raynaud's phenomenon. Microcirculatory changes did not correlate with other clinical manifestations or serological indices, including cryocrit, cryoglobulin type, HCV genotype, viral load, haemoglobin, ALT, rheumatoid factor, IgM and C4 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MC show a variety of microcirculatory changes, often clustered in a characteristic pattern of abnormally oriented, short capillaries and neoangiogenetic phenomena. Capillary changes are more numerous in nephritic patients.  (+info)

Unusual localization of multiple myxoid (mucous) cysts of toes. (35/170)

Myxoid cysts of fingers and toes are observed frequently on the lateral or dorsal aspects of the distal digits. They are usually solitary nodules. Both subungual localization and multiplicity are quite rare. We present a 74-year-old woman with digital subungual mucous cysts located on all toes.  (+info)

Nail changes during docetaxel containing combination chemotherapy. (36/170)

Nail toxicity following systemic chemotherapy is common. Onychopathy during the period of neutropenia following chemotherapy may cause subungual abscesses and serious infection. Despite taxoid-related toxicity being increasingly reported since 2000, there are still phase II systemic chemotherapy studies using taxoid that have never mentioned nail changes. Recently, new criteria for the evaluation of nail toxicity have been suggested. The present report is the first of its kind, in Korea, to describe a case of docetaxel-associated onychopathy, which improved following a reduction in the docetaxel dose.  (+info)

Melanonychia striata with multiple toenail involvement in a child. (37/170)

A 10-year-old Filipino boy with melanonychia striata affecting six toenails is described. The occurrence of melanonychia striata affecting so many toenails has not been reported previously in a Filipino child.  (+info)

Overcoming functional redundancy to elicit pachyonychia congenita-like nail lesions in transgenic mice. (38/170)

Mutations affecting the coding sequence of intermediate filament (IF) proteins account for >30 disorders, including numerous skin bullous diseases, myopathies, neuropathies, and even progeria. The manipulation of IF genes in mice has been widely successful for modeling key features of such clinically distinct disorders. A notable exception is pachyonychia congenita (PC), a disorder in which the nail and other epithelial appendages are profoundly aberrant. Most cases of PC are due to mutations in one of the following keratin-encoding genes: K6, K16, and K17. Yet null alleles obliterating the function of both K6 genes (K6alpha and K6beta) or the K17 gene, as well as the targeted expression of a dominant-negative K6alpha mutant, elicit only a subset of PC-specific epithelial lesions (excluding that of the nail in mice). We show that newborn mice null for K6alpha, K6beta, and K17 exhibit severe lysis restricted to the nail bed epithelium, where all three genes are robustly expressed, providing strong evidence that this region of the nail unit is initially targeted in PC. Our findings point to significant redundancy among the multiple keratins expressed in hair and nail, which can be related to the common ancestry, clustered organization, and sequence relatedness of specific keratin genes.  (+info)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed: three case reports. (39/170)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed is rare, and the disease is often misdiagnosed as a benign condition. Digital amputation is often performed because of the delay in diagnosis and the involvement of the distal phalanx. Between March 1999 and March 2002, 3 patients presented to the Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, with squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed. Two of the patients underwent a digit-salvaging procedure-namely, wide local excision and flap coverage-and their functional outcome was satisfactory. The remaining patient received partial amputation of the thumb without significant functional loss. A high degree of suspicion is thus needed to detect squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed; a biopsy of chronic recurrent nail bed lesions should be performed.  (+info)

Implantation of a pleurovenous shunt for massive chylothorax in a patient with yellow nail syndrome. (40/170)

Yellow nail syndrome is a type of lymphatic dysplasia syndrome characterised by the triad of yellow nails, lymphoedema, and pleural effusions. The case history is presented of a 70 year old patient with yellow nail syndrome who complained of dyspnoea caused by massive chylothorax. The patient underwent insertion of a pleuroperitoneal shunt which resulted in abdominal distension and deterioration of leg oedema. The pleuroperitoneal shunt was replaced by a pleurovenous shunt on the right side which led to an improvement in the bilateral pleural effusions, abdominal distension, and leg oedema. A pleurovenous shunt may be an alternative rescue therapy for yellow nail syndrome.  (+info)