Reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent NF-kappaB activation by interleukin-1beta requires 5-lipoxygenase or NADPH oxidase activity.
We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells. (+info
Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2. (+info
Characterization and partial purification of a novel neutrophil membrane-associated kinase capable of phosphorylating the respiratory burst component p47phox.
The phosphorylation of p47phox is widely viewed as an important step in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase system. The exact nature of the kinase(s) responsible remains to be elucidated. We show here that such a kinase was detected on neutrophil membranes activated by either PMA or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. This enzyme is not intrinsic to the neutrophil membrane and could be eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. The kinase activity was partially purified and was found not to be due to the presence of previously suggested kinases, including protein kinase C isotypes, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B. Gel filtration and renaturation in substrate gels suggest a molecular mass of between 45 and 51 kDa. The kinase activity was independent of calcium and lipids but was potently inhibited by staurosporine. Treatment with protein phosphatase 2Ac suggested that the kinase was activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphopeptide maps indicated that the kinase phosphorylated p47phox on similar sites to those found in vivo. These results indicate that activation of neutrophils by PMA results in the activation of a membrane-associated kinase that may play a part in the regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase through its ability to phosphorylate p47phox. (+info
Missense mutations in the gp91-phox gene encoding cytochrome b558 in patients with cytochrome b positive and negative X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a disorder of host defense due to genetic defects of the superoxide (O2-) generating NADPH oxidase in phagocytes. A membrane-bound cytochrome b558, a heterodimer consisting of gp91-phox and p22-phox, is a critical component of the oxidase. The X-linked form of the disease is due to defects in the gp91-phox gene. We report here biochemical and genetic analyses of patients with typical and atypical X-linked CGD. Immunoblots showed that neutrophils from one patient had small amounts of p22-phox and gp91-phox and a low level of O2- forming oxidase activity, in contrast to the complete absence of both subunits in two patients with typical CGD. Using polymerase chain reactions (PCR) on cDNA and genomic DNA, we found novel missense mutations of gp91-phox in the two typical patients and a point mutation in the variant CGD, a characteristic common to two other patients with similar variant CGD reported previously. Spectrophotometric analysis of the neutrophils from the variant patient provided evidence for the presence of heme of cytochrome b558. Recently, we reported another variant CGD with similar amounts of both subunits, but without oxidase activity or the heme spectrum. A predicted mutation at amino acid 101 in gp91-phox was also confirmed in this variant CGD by PCR of the genomic DNA. These results on four patients, including those with two variant CGD, are discussed with respect to the missense mutated sites and the heme binding ligands in gp91-phox. (+info
NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells.
The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition. (+info
Signal transduction by reactive oxygen species in non-phagocytic cells.
A growing body of evidence suggests a potential role for oxygen-derived radicals such as superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide as intracellular signaling molecules. Recently, progress has been made regarding the regulation of oxidant production in non-phagocytic cells. Significant gaps in understanding persist, however, especially in regard to the source(s) of oxidant production and the direct intracellular target(s) of oxygen radicals. Nonetheless, numerous recent studies have implicated a dynamic change in the intracellular redox state as an important determinant in a host of cellular decisions ranging from growth, to apoptosis, to cellular senescence. (+info
Activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase.
The neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase is a multicomponent activatable enzyme comprising one of the major phagocyte antimicrobial systems. In the genetic disorder chronic granulomatous disease, absent oxidase function is associated with recurrent, severe, and often life-threatening infections. The components of the oxidase system include both membrane-bound and soluble cytosolic proteins. A primary feature of stimulus-dependent activation is the translocation of a complex of cytosolic factors to the membrane, where they associate with a flavocytochrome enzyme. Interactions among the various oxidase components occur through a number of specific regions, including SH3 domains and proline-rich motifs. The fully assembled complex functions as an electron transport system, moving electrons from cytosolic NADPH to molecular oxygen to form superoxide, which, along with subsequent reactive products, exerts microbicidal and cytotoxic activities. (+info
Progress in gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease.
Progress in development of gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited defect in leukocyte oxidase deficiency, is reviewed. The use of retrovirus vectors to transfer oxidase enzyme subunit cDNA sequence into hematopoietic progenitors results in correction of oxidase activity in neutrophils differentiating from transduced progenitors. In CGD mouse knockouts (X-linked gp91phox-deficient CGD and autosomal recessive p47phox-deficient CGD), gene therapy correction of the CGD defect resulted in appearance of oxidase-normal neutrophils in the peripheral blood and increased host resistance to challenge with fungi or bacteria. In a phase I clinical trial of ex vivo gene therapy of p47phox-deficient CGD, prolonged production (2-6 months) of a low number (1:5000) of oxidase-normal neutrophils was achieved. This therapy might prove beneficial in a setting of prolonged infection in CGD patients, in which even transient production of autologous gene-corrected neutrophils might augment host defense. (+info