Mechanistic studies on the reductive half-reaction of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase.
Site-directed mutagenesis has been employed to study the mechanism of hydride transfer from NADPH to NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Specifically, Ser457, Asp675, and Cys630 have been selected because of their proximity to the isoalloxazine ring of FAD. Substitution of Asp675 with asparagine or valine decreased cytochrome c reductase activities 17- and 677-fold, respectively, while the C630A substitution decreased enzymatic activity 49-fold. Earlier studies had shown that the S457A mutation decreased cytochrome c reductase activity 90-fold and also lowered the redox potential of the FAD semiquinone (Shen, A., and Kasper, C. B. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 9451-9459). The S457A/D675N and S457A/D675N/C630A mutants produced roughly multiplicative decreases in cytochrome c reductase activity (774- and 22000-fold, respectively) with corresponding decreases in the rates of flavin reduction. For each mutation, increases were observed in the magnitudes of the primary deuterium isotope effects with NADPD, consistent with decreased rates of hydride transfer from NADPH to FAD and an increase in the relative rate limitation of hydride transfer. Asp675 substitutions lowered the redox potential of the FAD semiquinone. In addition, the C630A substitution shifted the pKa of an ionizable group previously identified as necessary for catalysis (Sem, D. S., and Kasper, C. B. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 11539-11547) from 6.9 to 7.8. These results are consistent with a model in which Ser457, Asp675, and Cys630 stabilize the transition state for hydride transfer. Ser457 and Asp675 interact to stabilize both the transition state and the FAD semiquinone, while Cys630 interacts with the nicotinamide ring and the fully reduced FAD, functioning as a proton donor/acceptor to FAD. (+info)
Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution.
The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c. (+info)
Structure of a cytochrome P450-redox partner electron-transfer complex.
The crystal structure of the complex between the heme- and FMN-binding domains of bacterial cytochrome P450BM-3, a prototype for the complex between eukaryotic microsomal P450s and P450 reductase, has been determined at 2.03 A resolution. The flavodoxin-like flavin domain is positioned at the proximal face of the heme domain with the FMN 4.0 and 18.4 A from the peptide that precedes the heme-binding loop and the heme iron, respectively. The heme-binding peptide represents the most efficient and coupled through-bond electron pathway to the heme iron. Substantial differences between the FMN-binding domains of P450BM-3 and microsomal P450 reductase, observed around the flavin-binding sites, are responsible for different redox properties of the FMN, which, in turn, control electron flow to the P450. (+info)
Purified fusion enzyme between rat cytochrome P4501A1 and yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase.
A genetically engineered fusion enzyme between rat P4501A1 and yeast P450 reductase in the microsomal fraction of the recombinant yeast AH22/pAFCR1 was purified. The purified enzyme showed a typical CO-difference spectrum of P4501A1 and a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 125,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This agreed with the molecular weight of 131,202 calculated from the amino acid sequence. The purified enzyme showed both 7-ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase activity and horse heart cytochrome c reductase activity in the presence of NADPH. The 7-ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase activity depended on the species of lipid used for the reconstitution of the purified fusion enzyme although the purified enzyme showed the activity without reconstitution. The purified fusion enzyme had the Km value of 26 microM for 7-ethoxycoumarin and the maximal turnover rate of 29 mol product/min/mol enzyme at 30 degrees C. (+info)
Comparison of effects of acetaminophen on liver microsomal drug metabolism and lipid peroxidation in rats and mice.
Studies were conducted to determine the in vivo effect of acetaminophen (AAP) on the lipid peroxidation, drug metabolizing enzyme activity and microsomal electron transfer system of rat and mouse liver. AAP was found to inhibit ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity in the presence of NADPH and this inhibition of the enzyme was due to decrease in cytochrome P-450 content, but not due to change in lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes. Kinetical data showed that AAP administration had no effect on Km values of ethylmorphine N-demethylase, however, a decrease in the Vmax values was seen in rats and mice. There was no significant effect of AAP on both NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and the content of cytochrome b5 3 hours after this administration to rats and mice. On the other hand, AAP induced a significant decrease in NADH-ferricyanide reductase in mice, but not in rats. The greatest decrease in cytochrome P-450 observed among the components of the liver microsomal electron transfer system of rats and mice. (+info)
Formation in isolated rat liver microsomes and nuclei of benzo(a)pyrene metabolites that bind to DNA.
The hepatic nuclear fraction isolated from 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-treated rats contained enhanced levels of cytochrome P-450 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase [benzo(a)pyrene (BP) monooxygenase], whereas the activities of epoxide hydrase and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-cytochrome c reductase and the concentration of cytochrome b5 were not altered. The metabolite pattern of BP was investigated by using high-pressure liquid chromatography and was found to be similar in nuclei and microsomes from MC-treated rats. After incubation of the nuclear fraction with [3H]BP and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinculeotide phosphate, radioactivity was found to be associated with nuclear DNA and the extent of binding was markedly enhanced by pretreatment of the animals with MC. Binding was strongly inhibited by a-napthoflavone but was not influenced by 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, an inhibitor of epoxide hydrase. In the presence of microsomes from MC-treated rats, increased binding of BP to DNA was observed in nuclei from both control and MC-treated rats; moreover, when the nuclear DNA was replaced by a corresponding amount of calf thymus DNA, the extent of binding was severalfold enhanced. In contrast to nuclei from control rats, the nuclear fraction from MC-treated rats showed an increase in bound radioactivity when incubated with a microsome-free supernatant, obtained by incubating microsomes from MC-treated rats with [3H]BP. The increase in extent of binding was eliminated in the presence of menadione or alpha-naphthoflavone. It is suggested that under the conditions used here the following different processes may have contributed to the total incorporation of BP products into nuclear DNA: (a) formation of DNA-binding products derived from BP by nuclear aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase; (b) formation of DNA-binding products from microsomal BP metabolites by nuclear aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase; and (c) direct transfer of reactive microsomal metabolites to nuclear DNA. (+info)
Reaction of the microsomal heme oxygenase with cobaltic protoporphyrin IX, and extremely poor substrate.
A reconstituted heme oxygenase system which was composed of a purified heme oxygenase from pig spleen microsomes and a partially purified NADPH-cytochrome c reductase from pig liver microsomes could not catalyze the conversion of cobaltic protoporphyrin IX (Co-heme) to biliverdin, although Co-heme could bind with the heme oxygenase protein to form a complex. The heme oxygenase system in the microsomes from pig spleen, rat spleen, and rat kidney also failed to oxidize Co-heme to biliverdin. Properties of the complex of Co-heme and heme oxygenase closely resembled those of cobalt myoglobin and cobalt hemoglobin; the Co-heme bound to the heme oxygenase protein did not react with cyanide and azide, the Co-heme moiety was reduced but only slowly with sodium dithionite, and the reduced form of the Co-heme did not appear to bind carbon monoxide. The co-heme bound to heme oxygenase was not reduced with the NADPH-cytochrome c reductase system in air. These findings further support the views that heme oxygenase may have a heme-binding crevice similar to those of myoglobin and hemoglobin and that reduction of heme is the prerequisite for the oxidative degradation of heme in the heme oxygenase reaction. (+info)
Roles of key active-site residues in flavocytochrome P450 BM3.
The effects of mutation of key active-site residues (Arg-47, Tyr-51, Phe-42 and Phe-87) in Bacillus megaterium flavocytochrome P450 BM3 were investigated. Kinetic studies on the oxidation of laurate and arachidonate showed that the side chain of Arg-47 contributes more significantly to stabilization of the fatty acid carboxylate than does that of Tyr-51 (kinetic parameters for oxidation of laurate: R47A mutant, Km 859 microM, kcat 3960 min-1; Y51F mutant, Km 432 microM, kcat 6140 min-1; wild-type, Km 288 microM, kcat 5140 min-1). A slightly increased kcat for the Y51F-catalysed oxidation of laurate is probably due to decreased activation energy (DeltaG) resulting from a smaller DeltaG of substrate binding. The side chain of Phe-42 acts as a phenyl 'cap' over the mouth of the substrate-binding channel. With mutant F42A, Km is massively increased and kcat is decreased for oxidation of both laurate (Km 2. 08 mM, kcat 2450 min-1) and arachidonate (Km 34.9 microM, kcat 14620 min-1; compared with values of 4.7 microM and 17100 min-1 respectively for wild-type). Amino acid Phe-87 is critical for efficient catalysis. Mutants F87G and F87Y not only exhibit increased Km and decreased kcat values for fatty acid oxidation, but also undergo an irreversible conversion process from a 'fast' to a 'slow' rate of substrate turnover [for F87G (F87Y)-catalysed laurate oxidation: kcat 'fast', 760 (1620) min-1; kcat 'slow', 48.0 (44.6) min-1; kconv (rate of conversion from fast to slow form), 4.9 (23.8) min-1]. All mutants showed less than 10% uncoupling of NADPH oxidation from fatty acid oxidation. The rate of FMN-to-haem electron transfer was shown to become rate-limiting in all mutants analysed. For wild-type P450 BM3, the rate of FMN-to-haem electron transfer (8340 min-1) is twice the steady-state rate of oxidation (4100 min-1), indicating that other steps contribute to rate limitation. Active-site structures of the mutants were probed with the inhibitors 12-(imidazolyl)dodecanoic acid and 1-phenylimidazole. Mutant F87G binds 1-phenylimidazole >10-fold more tightly than does the wild-type, whereas mutant Y51F binds the haem-co-ordinating fatty acid analogue 12-(imidazolyl)dodecanoic acid >30-fold more tightly than wild-type. (+info)