(1/2452) Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution.
The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c. (+info)
(2/2452) Kinetics of transhydrogenase reaction catalyzed by the mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) imply more than one catalytic nucleotide-binding sites.
The steady-state kinetics of the transhydrogenase reaction (the reduction of acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide (APAD+) by NADH, DD transhydrogenase) catalyzed by bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP), purified Complex I, and by the soluble three-subunit NADH dehydrogenase (FP) were studied to assess a number of the Complex I-associated nucleotide-binding sites. Under the conditions where the proton-pumping transhydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) was not operating, the DD transhydrogenase activities of SMP and Complex I exhibited complex kinetic pattern: the double reciprocal plots of the velocities were not linear when the substrate concentrations were varied in a wide range. No binary complex (ping-pong) mechanism (as expected for a single substrate-binding site enzyme) was operating within any range of the variable substrates. ADP-ribose, a competitive inhibitor of NADH oxidase, was shown to compete more effectively with NADH (Ki = 40 microM) than with APAD+ (Ki = 150 microM) in the transhydrogenase reaction. FMN redox cycling-dependent, FP catalyzed DD transhydrogenase reaction was shown to proceed through a ternary complex mechanism. The results suggest that Complex I and the simplest catalytically competent fragment derived therefrom (FP) possess more than one nucleotide-binding sites operating in the transhydrogenase reaction. (+info)
(3/2452) Comparison of effects of acetaminophen on liver microsomal drug metabolism and lipid peroxidation in rats and mice.
Studies were conducted to determine the in vivo effect of acetaminophen (AAP) on the lipid peroxidation, drug metabolizing enzyme activity and microsomal electron transfer system of rat and mouse liver. AAP was found to inhibit ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity in the presence of NADPH and this inhibition of the enzyme was due to decrease in cytochrome P-450 content, but not due to change in lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes. Kinetical data showed that AAP administration had no effect on Km values of ethylmorphine N-demethylase, however, a decrease in the Vmax values was seen in rats and mice. There was no significant effect of AAP on both NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and the content of cytochrome b5 3 hours after this administration to rats and mice. On the other hand, AAP induced a significant decrease in NADH-ferricyanide reductase in mice, but not in rats. The greatest decrease in cytochrome P-450 observed among the components of the liver microsomal electron transfer system of rats and mice. (+info)
(4/2452) Structural motif of phosphate-binding site common to various protein superfamilies: all-against-all structural comparison of protein-mononucleotide complexes.
In order to search for a common structural motif in the phosphate-binding sites of protein-mononucleotide complexes, we investigated the structural variety of phosphate-binding schemes by an all-against-all comparison of 491 binding sites found in the Protein Data Bank. We found four frequently occurring structural motifs composed of protein atoms interacting with phosphate groups, each of which appears in different protein superfamilies with different folds. The most frequently occurring motif, which we call the structural P-loop, is shared by 13 superfamilies and is characterized by a four-residue fragment, GXXX, interacting with a phosphate group through the backbone atoms. Various sequence motifs, including Walker's A motif or the P-loop, turn out to be a structural P-loop found in a few specific superfamilies. The other three motifs are found in pairs of superfamilies: protein kinase and glutathione synthetase ATPase domain like, actin-like ATPase domain and nucleotidyltransferase, and FMN-linked oxidoreductase and PRTase. (+info)
(5/2452) Putidaredoxin-cytochrome p450cam interaction. Spin state of the heme iron modulates putidaredoxin structure.
During the monooxygenase reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450cam (P450cam), a ternary complex of P450cam, reduced putidaredoxin, and d-camphor is formed as an obligatory reaction intermediate. When ligands such as CO, NO, and O2 bind to the heme iron of P450cam in the intermediate complex, the EPR spectrum of reduced putidaredoxin with a characteristic signal at 346 millitesla at 77 K changed into a spectrum having a new signal at 348 millitesla. The experiment with O2 was carried out by employing a mutant P450cam with Asp251 --> Asn or Gly where the rate of electron transfer from putidaredoxin to oxyferrous P450cam is considerably reduced. Such a ligand-induced EPR spectral change of putidaredoxin was also shown in situ in Pseudomonas putida. Mutations introduced into the neighborhood of the iron-sulfur cluster of putidaredoxin revealed that a Ser44 --> Gly mutation mimicked the ligand-induced spectral change of putidaredoxin. Arg109 and Arg112, which are in the putative putidaredoxin binding site of P450cam, were essential for the spectral changes of putidaredoxin in the complex. These results indicate that a change in the P450cam active site that is the consequence of an altered spin state is transmitted to putidaredoxin within the ternary complex and produces a conformational change of the 2Fe-2S active center. (+info)
(6/2452) Anoxic function for the Escherichia coli flavohaemoglobin (Hmp): reversible binding of nitric oxide and reduction to nitrous oxide.
The flavohaemoglobin Hmp of Escherichia coli is inducible by nitric oxide (NO) and provides protection both aerobically and anaerobically from inhibition of growth by NO and agents that cause nitrosative stress. Here we report rapid kinetic studies of NO binding to Fe(III) Hmp with a second order rate constant of 7.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) to generate a nitrosyl adduct that was stable anoxically but decayed in the presence of air to reform the Fe(III) protein. NO displaced CO bound to dithionite-reduced Hmp but, remarkably, CO recombined after only 2 s at room temperature indicative of NO reduction and dissociation from the haem. Addition of NO to anoxic NADH-reduced Hmp also generated a nitrosyl species which persisted while NADH was oxidised. These results are consistent with direct demonstration by membrane-inlet mass spectrometry of NO consumption and nitrous oxide production during anoxic incubation of NADH-reduced Hmp. The results demonstrate a new mechanism by which Hmp may eliminate NO under anoxic growth conditions. (+info)
(7/2452) Iron reductase for magnetite synthesis in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum.
Ferric iron reductase was purified from magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum (formerly Aquaspirillum) magnetotacticum (ATCC 31632) to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. The enzyme was loosely bound on the cytoplasmic face of the cytoplasmic membrane and was found more frequently in magnetic cells than in nonmagnetic cells. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was calculated upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be about 36 kDa, almost the same as that calibrated by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme required NADH and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as optimal electron donor and cofactor, respectively, and the activity was strongly inhibited by Zn2+ acting as a partial mixed-type inhibitor. The Km values for NADH and FMN were 4.3 and 0. 035 microM, respectively, and the Ki values for Zn2+ were 19.2 and 23.9 microM for NADH and FMN, respectively. When the bacterium was grown in the presence of ZnSO4, the magnetosome number in the cells and the ferric iron reductase activity declined in parallel with an increase in the ZnSO4 concentration of the medium, suggesting that the ferric iron reductase purified in the present study may participate in magnetite synthesis. (+info)
(8/2452) Increased NADH-oxidase-mediated superoxide production in the early stages of atherosclerosis: evidence for involvement of the renin-angiotensin system.
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II activates NAD(P)H-dependent oxidases via AT1-receptor stimulation, the most important vascular source of superoxide (O2*-). The AT1 receptor is upregulated in vitro by low-density lipoprotein. The present study was designed to test whether hypercholesterolemia is associated with increased NAD(P)H-dependent vascular O2*- production and whether AT1-receptor blockade may inhibit this oxidase and in parallel improve endothelial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular responses were determined by isometric tension studies, and relative rates of vascular O2*- production were determined by use of chemiluminescence with lucigenin, a cypridina luciferin analogue, and electron spin resonance studies. AT1-receptor mRNA was quantified by Northern analysis, and AT1-receptor density was measured by radioligand binding assays. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and increased O2*- production in intact vessels. In vessel homogenates, we found a significant activation of NADH-driven O2*- production in both models of hyperlipidemia. Treatment of cholesterol-fed animals with the AT1-receptor antagonist Bay 10-6734 improved endothelial dysfunction, normalized vascular O2*- and NADH-oxidase activity, decreased macrophage infiltration, and reduced early plaque formation. In the setting of hypercholesterolemia, the aortic AT1 receptor mRNA was upregulated to 166+/-11%, accompanied by a comparable increase in AT1-receptor density. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercholesterolemia is associated with AT1-receptor upregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and increased NADH-dependent vascular O2*- production. The improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of the oxidase, and reduction of early plaque formation by an AT1-receptor antagonist suggests a crucial role of angiotensin II-mediated O2*- production in the early stage of atherosclerosis. (+info)