The Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretory product pyocyanin inactivates alpha1 protease inhibitor: implications for the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease.
Alpha1 Protease inhibitor (alpha1PI) modulates serine protease activity in the lung. Reactive oxygen species inactivate alpha1PI, and this process has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of forms of lung injury. An imbalance of protease-antiprotease activity is also detected in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis-associated lung disease who are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa secretes pyocyanin, which, through its ability to redox cycle, induces cells to generate reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that redox cycling of pyocyanin could lead to inactivation of alpha1PI. When alpha1PI was exposed to NADH and pyocyanin, a combination that results in superoxide production, alpha1PI lost its ability to form an inhibitory complex with both porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and trypsin. Similarly, addition of pyocyanin to cultures of human airway epithelial cells to which alpha1PI was also added resulted in a loss of the ability of alpha1PI to form a complex with PPE or trypsin. Neither superoxide dismutase, catalase, nor dimethylthiourea nor depletion of the media of O2 to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species blocked pyocyanin-mediated inactivation of alpha1PI. These data raise the possibility that a direct interaction between reduced pyocyanin and alpha1PI is involved in the process. Consistent with this possibility, pretreatment of alpha1PI with the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol also inhibited binding of trypsin to alpha1PI. These data suggest that pyocyanin could contribute to lung injury in the P. aeruginosa-infected airway of cystic fibrosis patients by decreasing the ability of alpha1PI to control the local activity of serine proteases. (+info)
Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates.
1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate. (+info)
Kinetics of transhydrogenase reaction catalyzed by the mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) imply more than one catalytic nucleotide-binding sites.
The steady-state kinetics of the transhydrogenase reaction (the reduction of acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide (APAD+) by NADH, DD transhydrogenase) catalyzed by bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP), purified Complex I, and by the soluble three-subunit NADH dehydrogenase (FP) were studied to assess a number of the Complex I-associated nucleotide-binding sites. Under the conditions where the proton-pumping transhydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) was not operating, the DD transhydrogenase activities of SMP and Complex I exhibited complex kinetic pattern: the double reciprocal plots of the velocities were not linear when the substrate concentrations were varied in a wide range. No binary complex (ping-pong) mechanism (as expected for a single substrate-binding site enzyme) was operating within any range of the variable substrates. ADP-ribose, a competitive inhibitor of NADH oxidase, was shown to compete more effectively with NADH (Ki = 40 microM) than with APAD+ (Ki = 150 microM) in the transhydrogenase reaction. FMN redox cycling-dependent, FP catalyzed DD transhydrogenase reaction was shown to proceed through a ternary complex mechanism. The results suggest that Complex I and the simplest catalytically competent fragment derived therefrom (FP) possess more than one nucleotide-binding sites operating in the transhydrogenase reaction. (+info)
Streptozotocin (STZ), a glucose analogue known to induce diabetes in experimental animals, causes DNA strand breaks and subsequent activation of poly(ADPribose) polymerase (Parp). Because Parp uses NAD as a substrate, extensive DNA damage will result in reduction of cellular NAD level. In fact, STZ induces NAD depletion and cell death in isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Activation of Parp therefore is thought to play an important role in STZ-induced diabetes. In the present study, we established Parp-deficient (Parp-/-) mice by disrupting Parp exon 1 by using the homologous recombination technique. These mice were used to examine the possible involvement of Parp in STZ-induced beta-cell damage in vivo. The wild-type (Parp+/+) mice showed significant increases in blood glucose concentration from 129 mg/dl to 218, 370, 477, and 452 mg/dl on experimental days 1, 7, 21, and 60, respectively, after a single injection of 180 mg STZ/kg body weight. In contrast, the concentration of blood glucose in Parp-/- mice remained normal up to day 7, slightly increased on day 21, but returned to normal levels on day 60. STZ injection caused extensive necrosis in the islets of Parp+/+ mice on day 1, with subsequent progressive islet atrophy and loss of functional beta cells from day 7. In contrast, the extent of islet beta-cell death and dysfunction was markedly less in Parp-/- mice. Our findings clearly implicate Parp activation in islet beta-cell damage and glucose intolerance induced by STZ in vivo. (+info)
Pseudoenzymatic reduction of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene to 2-acetylaminofluorene mediated by cytochrome P450.
N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) was reduced to 2-acetylaminofluorene by rat liver microsomes in the presence of both NAD(P)H and FAD under anaerobic conditions. The microsomal reduction proceeds as if it were an enzymatic reaction. However, when the microsomes were boiled, the activity was not abolished, but was enhanced. The activity was also observed with cytochrome P450 2B1 alone, without NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, in the presence of these cofactors. Hematin also exhibited a significant reducing activity in the presence of both a reduced pyridine nucleotide and FAD. The activities of microsomes, cytochrome P450 2B1 and hematin were also observed upon the addition of photochemically reduced FAD instead of both NAD(P)H and FAD. The microsomal reduction of N-OH-AAF appears to be a non-enzymatic reaction by the reduced flavin, catalyzed by the heme group of cytochrome P450. (+info)
CD38 signaling in B lymphocytes is controlled by its ectodomain but occurs independently of enzymatically generated ADP-ribose or cyclic ADP-ribose.
CD38 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed by many cell types including lymphocytes. Signaling through CD38 on B lymphocytes can mediate B cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Additionally, coligation of CD38 and the B cell Ag receptor can greatly augment B cell Ag receptor responses. Interestingly, the extracellular domain of CD38 catalyzes the conversion of NAD+ into nicotinamide, ADP-ribose (ADPR), and cyclic ADPR (cADPR). cADPR can induce intracellular calcium release in an inositol trisphosphate-independent manner and has been hypothesized to regulate CD38-mediated signaling. We demonstrate that replacement of the cytoplasmic tail and the transmembrane domains of CD38 did not impair CD38 signaling, coreceptor activity, or enzyme activity. In contrast, independent point mutations in the extracellular domain of CD38 dramatically impaired signal transduction. However, no correlation could be found between CD38-mediated signaling and the capacity of CD38 to catalyze an enzyme reaction and produce cADPR, ADPR, and/or nicotinamide. Instead, we propose that CD38 signaling and coreceptor activity in vitro are regulated by conformational changes induced in the extracellular domain upon ligand/substrate binding, rather than on actual turnover or generation of products. (+info)
Antioxidants improve impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and prevent migration and proliferation of cultured rabbit coronary smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose.
BACKGROUND: To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose-induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or alpha-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic high-glucose-medium (22. 2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5.6 mmol/L+16.6 mmol/L mannose). Probucol and alpha-tocopherol significantly suppressed high glucose-induced increase in VSMC migration, cell number, and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Probucol and alpha-tocopherol suppressed high glucose-induced elevation of the cytosolic ratio of NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. Probucol, alpha-tocopherol, and calphostin C improved the high glucose-induced suppression of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake. Chronic high-glucose treatment increased the oxidative stress, which was significantly suppressed by probucol, alpha-tocopherol, suramin, and calphostin C. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that probucol and alpha-tocopherol may suppress high glucose-induced VSMC migration and proliferation via suppression of increases in the cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C activation induced by high glucose, which result in reduction in intracellular oxidative stress. (+info)
Opposing changes in 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase oxidative and reductive activities in rat leydig cells during pubertal development.
The enzyme 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) has an important role in androgen metabolism, catalyzing the interconversion of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-DIOL). The net direction of this interconversion will affect the amount of biologically active ligand available for androgen receptor binding. We hypothesize that in Leydig cells, differential expression of 3alpha-HSD enzymes favoring one of the two directions is a mechanism by which DHT levels are controlled. In order to characterize 3alpha-HSD in rat Leydig cells, the following properties were analyzed: rates of oxidation (3alpha-DIOL to DHT) and reduction (DHT to 3alpha-DIOL) and preference for the cofactors NADP(H) and NAD(H) (i.e., the oxidized and reduced forms of both pyridine nucleotides) in Leydig cells isolated on Days 21, 35, and 90 postpartum. Levels of 3alpha-HSD protein were measured by immunoblotting using an antibody directed against the liver type of the enzyme. Levels of 3alpha-HSD protein and rates of reduction were highest on Day 21 and lowest on Day 90. The opposite was true for the rate of 3alpha-HSD oxidation, which was barely detectable on Day 21 and highest on Day 90 (59.08 +/- 6.35 pmol/min per 10(6) cells, mean +/- SE). Therefore, the level of 3alpha-HSD protein detectable by liver enzyme was consistent with reduction but not with oxidation. There was a clear partitioning of NADP(H)-dependent activity into the cytosolic fraction of Leydig cells, whereas on Days 35 and 90, Leydig cells also contained a microsomal NAD(H)-activated 3alpha-HSD. We conclude that 1) the cytosolic 3alpha-HSD in Leydig cells on Day 21 behaves as a unidirectional NADPH-dependent reductase; 2) by Day 35, a microsomal NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity is present and may account for predominance of 3alpha-HSD oxidation over reduction and the resultant high capacity of Leydig cells on Day 90 to synthesize DHT from 3alpha-DIOL. (+info)