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(1/376) Echocardiographic diagnosis of large fungal verruca attached to mitral valve.

In a patient with endocarditis due to Candida tropicalis echocardiograms from mitral valve vegetations were found to mimic the typical pattern of a left atrial myxoma. A mass was shown occupying the mitral orifice posterior to the anterior mitral leaflet; densities also appeared in the left atrium. Though these echocardiographic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of a left atrial myxoma, there were other distinctive differential diagnostic features. Other diagnostic possibilities must, therefore, be considered in the interpretation of echocardiograms which suggest left atrial tumour.  (+info)

(2/376) Symptomatic mitral myxomatous transformation in the elderly.

The clinical and pathological features of four patients with intractable heart failure, due to myxomatous change in the mitral valve, are described. It is suggested that this change may represent a response of ageing connective tissue to mechanical stress.  (+info)

(3/376) Hunter's syndrome and associated sleep apnoea cured by CPAP and surgery.

A 42-yr-old male with Hunter's syndrome presented with severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and daytime respiratory failure. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy was initially ineffective and produced acute respiratory distress. Extensive Hunter's disease infiltration of the upper airway with a myxoma was confirmed. Following surgery to remove the myxoma at the level of the vocal cords, CPAP therapy was highly effective and well tolerated. This report demonstrates the necessity of evaluating fully the upper airway in patients with unusual variants of OSAS, particularly where the disease is not adequately controlled by CPAP.  (+info)

(4/376) Detection of microsatellite instability in sporadic cardiac myxomas.

OBJECTIVE: Microsatellite instability (MIN) is an early event in DNA repair-deficient associated diseases and reflects an elevated mutation rate in the genome of neoplastic cells. Sporadic cardiac myxomas are the most common primary heart tumours and their aetiopathology remains obscure. This study investigates the incidence of MIN in sporadic cardiac myxomas as a possible genetic mechanism of tumour pathogenesis. METHODS: Eleven surgically excised sporadic cardiac myxomas were assessed for MI using twenty-two highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, located on a wide range of chromosomal arms. DNA was extracted from myxoma tissue specimens as well as the respective normal tissue and subjected to polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The microsatellite analysis revealed that seven myxoma specimens (64%) exhibited MIN in at least one marker. One tumour specimen exhibited evidence of MIN in four microsatellite markers, while the most frequently affected marker was D17S855 (27%), located on chromosome 17q. DISCUSSION: We have detected a considerable incidence of MIN in sporadic cardiac myxomas indicating that decreased fidelity in DNA replication and repair is common in these tumours. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report describing MIN in sporadic cardiac myxomas, as a possible pathogenetic mechanism of these rare neoplasms.  (+info)

(5/376) Benign small bowel tumor.

The clinical record and histologic sections of 84 cases of benign small bowel tumor are reviewed. Manifestations of systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, and lesions of either the ileocecal valve or periampullary region were excluded. In the same time span there were 96 small bowel malignancies. Clinical presentation, pathologic findings, management and result are compared to the collected published experience of about 2000 cases. There were 36 leiomyomas, 22 lipomas, 9 angiomas, 6 neurofibromas and 4 fibromas. Thirty-six men and 48 women were affected; the majority in their fifth and sixth decade. Seventy-eight were operative and 6 autopsy diagnoses. The most common symptom was obstruction (42%) followed by hemorrhage (34%) and pain (22%), relative frequency differing for the various specific tumors. There were rarely significant physical findings. A diagnosis of small bowel tumor was made radiologically in 30 patients. Because of the nonspecificity of other signs and symptoms, an acute awareness of the possibility of small bowel tumor is mandatory for preoperative anticipation of the diagnosis. Local resection was performed in all with no deaths or significant postoperative complications.  (+info)

(6/376) Surgical treatment of right atrial myxoma.

A 51-year-old man with a large right atrial myxoma underwent emergency surgical resection in our institute. The diagnosis of such tumors can be difficult, and their resection presents difficulties for the placement of the venous cannulae. We used a single cannula in the superior vena cava until fibrillation, and then we inserted a cannula into the inferior vena cava. We present this technique as a method of avoiding embolization.  (+info)

(7/376) Clinical characteristics of a familial inherited myxomatous valvular dystrophy mapped to Xq28.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotypic characteristics of an inherited myxomatous valvular dystrophy mapped to Xq28. BACKGROUND: Myxomatous valve dystrophies are a frequent cause of valvular diseases, the most common being idiopathic mitral valve prolapse. They form a group of heterogeneous diseases difficult to subclassify. The first mapping of the gene for a myxoid valvular dystrophy to Xq28 allowed investigation of the phenotype of affected members in a large family and characterization of the disease. METHODS: Among the 318 members in the pedigree, 89 agreed to participate in this study. Phenotypic characteristics were investigated using clinical examination, transthoracic echocardiography and biological analysis (F.VIII activity). Genetic status was based on haplotype analysis. RESULTS: Among 46 males, 9 were hemizygous to the mutant allele and had an obvious mitral and/or aortic myxomatous valve defect, and 4 had undergone valvular surgery. All had typical mitral valve prolapse associated in six cases with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. The valve defect cosegregated with mild hemophilia A (F.VIII activity = 0.32 +/- 0.05). The 37 remaining males had normal valves and normal F.VIII activity. Heterozygous women were identified on the basis of their haplotypes. Among the 17 women heterozygous to the mutant allele, moderate mitral regurgitation was present in 8, associated with mild mitral valve prolapse in 1 and aortic regurgitation in 3, whereas 2 women had isolated mild aortic regurgitant murmur. In heterozygotes, the penetrance value was 0.60 but increased with age. CONCLUSION: X-linked myxomatous valvular disease is characterized by mitral valve dystrophy frequently associated with degeneration of the aortic valves affecting males and, to a lower severity, females. The first localization of a gene for myxomatous valvular diseases is the first step for the subclassification of these diseases.  (+info)

(8/376) Mitral valve thrombus attached to the intact mitral valve associated with distal embolism.

A 61-year-old man was referred for cardiac investigation because embolism was suspected to be the cause of the sudden onset of severe pain in his right leg after a surgical procedure. The electrocardiogram revealed no atrial fibrillation. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a tumor-like echo at the anterior mitral leaflet, and transesophageal echocardiography documented a mass 13x9mm in size, attached by a stalk to the left atrial side of the anterior mitral leaflet. The other parts of the mitral valve appeared to be intact. At emergency surgery, the mass was located in the center of the left atrial side of the anterior mitral leaflet. It mimicked a myxoma and had a stalk arising from the anterior leaflet. After resection of the mitral valve mass, catheter thrombo-embolectomy was performed and several long pieces of fresh thrombus were removed. On histological examination, the mass consisted of fresh thrombus tissue. No cellular component or myxoma tissue was documented. The distal embolus also consisted of fresh thrombus tissue. This is the first case of a thrombus of the intact mitral valve without atrial fibrillation.  (+info)