(1/96) Regulation of thyrotropin receptor protein expression in insect cells.
Expression of large quantities of conformationally intact thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is essential to understand the structure-function relationship of the receptor. We expressed three different constructs of full-length human TSHR in insect cells: (a) a TSHR cDNA lacking signal sequence (TSHR-ns), (b) a TSHR cDNA containing human TSHR signal sequence (TSHR-hs) and (c) a TSHR cDNA with baculovirus envelope protein encoded signal sequence gp-67 (TSHR-gp). No unique protein band, corresponding to any of these recombinant proteins, was visible upon Coomassie Blue staining after SDS-PAGE. However, Western blot using TSHR specific monoclonal antibody showed unique bands around 80, 100 and 100 kDa in TSHR-ns, TSHR-hs and TSHR-gp virus infected insect cells respectively. All three full-length TSHR proteins could neutralize the TSH binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) activity from sera of experimental animals. However, only glycosylated proteins (TSHR-hs and TSHR-gp) neutralized the TBII activity of sera from autoimmune thyroid patients, confirming the importance of glycosylation for patient autoantibody reactivity. Expression levels of full-length TSHR proteins were much lower than the levels of similarly produced corresponding ectodomains of TSHR proteins. Southern blot and Northern blot analyses showed that DNA and RNA levels in full-length TSHR virus infected insect cells were comparable to the levels found in cells infected with viruses encoding only the ectodomain of TSHR. These data suggest that full-length TSHR expression is very low and is regulated at the translational level. (+info)
(2/96) Aorto-coronary dissection during angioplasty in a patient with myxedema.
A 67-year-old man with overt hypothyroidism and medically controlled hypertension was admitted for coronary angiography because of exertional angina. His triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels had been low for 4 years. Although signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism were apparent, his hypercholesterolemia was mild. Coronary angiography revealed an eccentric stenosis in the distal portion of the right coronary artery and it was decided to perform angioplasty because his angina had continued in spite of medication. The dissection appeared at the lesion site after the first nominal inflation, and a subsequent image disclosed a spiral dissection from the dilated site to the aortic sinus and peripheral coronary artery. Although emergency stenting could not prevent the extension near the origin of the brachiocephalic artery, the false lumen thrombosed and then diminished with conservative therapy. Aorto-coronary dissection is potentially life-threatening and has been recently reported as a complication during cardiac catheterization procedures. Chronic hypothyroid insufficiency may be one of the risk factors for this complication. (+info)
(3/96) Myxedema coma: diagnosis and treatment.
Myxedema coma, the extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, is an uncommon but potentially lethal condition. Patients with hypothyroidism may exhibit a number of physiologic alterations to compensate for the lack of thyroid hormone. If these homeostatic mechanisms are overwhelmed by factors such as infection, the patient may decompensate into myxedema coma. Patients with hypothyroidism typically have a history of fatigue, weight gain, constipation and cold intolerance. Physicians should include hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis of every patient with hyponatremia. Patients with suspected myxedema coma should be admitted to an intensive care unit for vigorous pulmonary and cardiovascular support. Most authorities recommend treatment with intravenous levothyroxine (T4) as opposed to intravenous liothyronine (T3). Hydrocortisone should be administered until coexisting adrenal insufficiency is ruled out. Family physicians are in an important position to prevent myxedema coma by maintaining a high level of suspicion for hypothyroidism. (+info)
(4/96) Thyroxine treatment induces upregulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system due to decreasing effective plasma volume in patients with primary myxoedema.
BACKGROUND: In experimental animals and humans, hypothyroidism is associated with fluid retention and generalized oedema, increased antidiuretic hormone (ADH), decreased atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH), and decreased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which subsequently can be corrected by thyroid hormone replacement. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of thyroxine therapy on RAAS and neurohormones affecting water and electrolyte metabolism and the reason for these changes in patients with primary myxoedema. METHODS: We measured changes in the plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone (Aldo), ADH, ANH levels, serum and 24 h urinary electrolytes and osmolalities, and cardiac function in 22 female patients with primary myxoedema before and after correction of hypothyroidism. We also evaluated age-, sex-, and BMI-matched 15 healthy control subjects (Cont). RESULTS: It took an average of 4.3 months (range, 3-9 months) to normalize thyroid function. The mean reductions of body weight and estimated plasma volume were 1.8+/-1.0 kg (P=0.002) and 8.5% (P<0.001), respectively. In addition, serum Na+ and osmolality and the haematocrit were significantly elevated after correction of hypothyroidism (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). Increased F(E)Na and C(OSM) (P<0.05) levels in patients with hypothyroidism (Ho) compared with those in Cont did not change after thyroxine therapy (Eu). However, C(H(2)O), U(E)K, F(E)K, and TTKG levels as well as creatinine clearance (Ccr) were markedly increased in Eu compared with Ho and Cont (P<0.01, respectively). Increased plasma ADH concentration and decreased plasma ANH concentration were normalized compared to Cont after thyroxine therapy (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). Low PRA and serum Aldo concentration in Ho were significantly increased in Eu (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). In addition, increased left ventricular mass index and decreased cardiac output in Ho were normalized compared to Cont after thyroxine therapy (P<0.01, respectively) CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the exaggerated upregulation of RAAS after correction of hypothyroidism in patients with primary myxoedema is associated with an increase in Ccr and a decrease in plasma volume resulting from water diuresis, natriuresis, osmotic diuresis and inappropriate changes in plasma ADH and ANH levels. The improved renal function coincided with an amelioration of cardiac function. These changes seem to be an adaptive response for preventing excessive plasma volume and weight loss after thyroxine therapy. (+info)
(5/96) Exophthalmus-myxoedema circumscriptum praetibiale-osteoarthropathia hypertrophicans (E.M.O.) syndrome in Graves' disease: a review of eight cases reported in Japan.
Case 1 showed recurrence of hyperthyroidism accompanied by pretibial myxedema and digital clubbing 14 years after thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Case 2 had had pretibial myxedema for the past 20 years and myxedema tuberosum at the right shoulder for the past 10 years, and on admission showed exophthalmos and digital clubbing with thyroid gland demonstrating histological picture of chronic thyroiditis. This case was in slight hypothyroidism and serum LATS was highly positive. Eight cases of E.M.O. syndrome have so far been reported in Japan, including our own. Six cases of these were males. Two cases did not show any sign of hyperthyroidism throughout their entire courses, including our Case 2 described here. Three cases had never received treatment for Graves' disease prior to the occurrence of this syndrome. The serum LATS was positive in all 5 cases thus far reported. (+info)
(6/96) Evidence for thyrotropin receptor immunoreactivity in pretibial connective tissue from patients with thyroid-associated dermopathy.
Pretibial myxedema (PTM), mainly characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, is an extrathyroidal manifestation of autoimmune Graves' disease (GD), almost always associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) has been proposed as the common target antigen in GD, GO and PTM, with evidence for receptor transcripts and/or protein in these locations. The aim of this study has been to investigate whether receptor protein is present in the pretibial tissues. Skin biopsies were obtained from two patients with PTM and two normal subjects without thyroid disease. A portion of each sample was fixed to produce semi-thin sections for Toluidine Blue or Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The remainder was snap frozen to generate cryostat sections for immunohistochemical analysis using three monoclonal antibodies against TSH-R. In the skin from the two patients suffering from PTM, the dermis was infiltrated by inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, B cells, macrophages, mast cells) and adipocytes. The collagen fibers were dissociated by edema and by the accumulation of a PAS-positive material. Immunodetection of TSH-R produced positive staining on cells localized in the dermis, beneath the epidermis or close to the hypodermis. These cells were elongated and resembled fibroblasts. No immunoreactivity was observed in the dermis from control patients without thyroid disease. In conclusion, we have evidence for TSH-R immunoreactivity in the pretibium of patients with GD, GO and PTM. Further studies are needed to unambiguously identify the positive cells and determine whether the reactivity is due to the receptor itself or to a cross-reacting protein. (+info)
(7/96) Intravenous immunoglobulins control scleromyxoedema.
BACKGROUND: Scleromyxoedema is a variant of papular mucinosis affecting the skin and internal organs. The different therapeutic approaches proposed for scleromyxoedema are still unsatisfactory. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been successfully employed in the treatment of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides. PATIENTS: The successful treatment of three cases of scleromyxoedema with IVIg is reported here. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively low risk of the drug and the high effectiveness seen in three patients suggest that IVIg is a new treatment potentially useful in scleromyxoedema. (+info)
(8/96) Myxedema accompanied by huge portal-systemic shunt without portal hypertension.
A 43-year-old woman with a huge portal-systemic shunt accompanied by myxedema showed slow speech and behavior. Several imaging studies revealed a bold portal-systemic shunt from the splenic vein to the left renal vein. In addition, hypothyroidism caused by chronic thyroiditis was diagnosed, and synthesized thyroxine replacement was effective for the symptoms. However, the serum ammonia and indocyanin green retention remained in the abnormal range, nevertheless the portal vein pressure was normal and findings of liver cirrohsis were not recognized histologically. Surgical shunt closure was performed, resulting in normalized serum ammonia levels and serum branched chain amino acids /aromatic amino acids ratio, and improvement of the ammonia tolerance test. (+info)