The muscle chloride channel ClC-1 has a double-barreled appearance that is differentially affected in dominant and recessive myotonia.
Single-channel recordings of the currents mediated by the muscle Cl- channel, ClC-1, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, provide the first direct evidence that this channel has two equidistant open conductance levels like the Torpedo ClC-0 prototype. As for the case of ClC-0, the probabilities and dwell times of the closed and conducting states are consistent with the presence of two independently gated pathways with approximately 1.2 pS conductance enabled in parallel via a common gate. However, the voltage dependence of the common gate is different and the kinetics are much faster than for ClC-0. Estimates of single-channel parameters from the analysis of macroscopic current fluctuations agree with those from single-channel recordings. Fluctuation analysis was used to characterize changes in the apparent double-gate behavior of the ClC-1 mutations I290M and I556N causing, respectively, a dominant and a recessive form of myotonia. We find that both mutations reduce about equally the open probability of single protopores and that mutation I290M yields a stronger reduction of the common gate open probability than mutation I556N. Our results suggest that the mammalian ClC-homologues have the same structure and mechanism proposed for the Torpedo channel ClC-0. Differential effects on the two gates that appear to modulate the activation of ClC-1 channels may be important determinants for the different patterns of inheritance of dominant and recessive ClC-1 mutations. (+info)
Cardiac involvement in proximal myotonic myopathy.
Proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) is a recently described autosomal dominantly inherited disorder resulting in proximal muscles weakness, myotonia, and cataracts. A few patients with cardiac involvement (sinus bradycardia, supraventricular bigeminy, conduction abnormalities) have been reported. The cases of three relatives with PROMM (weakness of neck flexors and proximal extremity muscles, calf hypertrophy, myotonia, cataracts) are reported: a 54 year old man, his 73 year old mother, and 66 year old aunt. All three presented with conduction abnormalities and one had repeated, life threatening, sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. This illustrates that severe cardiac involvement may occur in PROMM. (+info)
Potassium current suppression in patients with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.
Acquired neuromyotonia (Isaac's syndrome) is considered to be an autoimmune disease, and the pathomechanism of nerve hyperexcitability in this syndrome is correlated with anti-voltage-gated K(+) channel (VGKC) antibodies. The patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of immunoglobulins from acquired neuromyotonia patients on VGKCs and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in a human neuroblastoma cell line (NB-1). K(+) currents were suppressed in cells that had been co-cultured with acquired neuromyotonia patients' immunoglobulin for 3 days but not for 1 day. The activation and inactivation kinetics of the outward K(+) currents were not altered by these immunoglobulins, nor did the immunoglobulins significantly affect the Na(+) currents. Myokymia or myokymic discharges, with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, also occur in various neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and idiopathic generalized myokymia without pseudomyotonia. Immuno-globulins from patients with these diseases suppressed K(+) but not Na(+) currents. In addition, in hKv 1.1- and 1.6-transfected CHO (Chinese hamster ovary)-K1 cells, the expressed VGKCs were suppressed by sera from acquired neuromyotonia patients without a change in gating kinetics. Our findings indicate that nerve hyperexcitability is mainly associated with the suppression of voltage-gated K(+) currents with no change in gating kinetics, and that this suppression occurs not only in acquired neuromyotonia but also in Guillain-Barre syndrome and idiopathic generalized myokymia without pseudomyotonia. (+info)
Increased hindrance on the chiral carbon atom of mexiletine enhances the block of rat skeletal muscle Na+ channels in a model of myotonia induced by ATX.
1 The antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (Mex) is also used against myotonia. Searching for a more efficient drug, a new compound (Me5) was synthesized substituting the methyl group on the chiral carbon atom of Mex by an isopropyl group. Effects of Me5 on Na+ channels were compared to those of Mex in rat skeletal muscle fibres using the cell-attached patch clamp method. 2 Me5 (10 microM) reduced the maximal sodium current (INa) by 29.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at a frequency of stimulation of 0.3 Hz and 65.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at 1 Hz. At same concentration (10 microM), Mex was incapable of producing any effect (n=3). Me5 also shifted the steady-state inactivation curves by -7. 9+/-0.9 mV (n=6) at 0.3 Hz and -12.2+/-1.0 mV (n=6) at 1 Hz. 3 In the presence of sea anemone toxin II (ATX; 5 microM), INa decayed more slowly and no longer to zero, providing a model of sodium channel myotonia. The effects of Me5 on peak INa were similar whatever ATX was present or not. Interestingly, Me5 did not modify the INa decay time constant nor the steady-state INa to peak INa ratio. 4 Analysis of ATX-induced late Na+ channel activity shows that Me5 did not affect mean open times and single-channel conductance, thus excluding open channel block property. 5 These results indicate that increasing hindrance on the chiral atom of Mex increases drug potency on wild-type and ATX-induced noninactivating INa and that Me5 might improve the prophylaxis of myotonia. (+info)
Spectrum of sodium channel disturbances in the nondystrophic myotonias and periodic paralyses.
Several heritable forms of myotonia and periodic paralysis are caused by missense mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of skeletal muscle. Mutations produce gain-of-function defects, either disrupted inactivation or enhanced activation. Both defects result in too much inward Na current which may either initiate pathologic bursts of action potentials (myotonia) or cause flaccid paralysis by depolarizing fibers to a refractory inexcitable state. Myotonic stiffness and periodic paralysis occur as paroxysmal attacks often triggered by environmental factors such as serum K+, cold, or exercise. Many gaps remain in our understanding of the interactions between genetic predisposition and these environmental influences. Targeted gene manipulation in animals may provide the tools to fill in these gaps. (+info)
From tonus to tonicity: physiology of CLC chloride channels.
Chloride channels are involved in a multitude of physiologic processes ranging from basal cellular functions such as cell volume regulation and acidification of intracellular vesicles to more specialized mechanisms such as vectorial transepithelial transport and regulation of cellular excitability. This plethora of functions is accomplished by numerous functionally highly diverse chloride channels that are only partially identified at the molecular level. The CLC family of chloride channels comprises at present nine members in mammals that differ with respect to biophysical properties, cellular compartmentalization, and tissue distribution. Their common structural features include a predicted topology model with 10 to 12 transmembrane regions together with two C-terminal CBS domains. Loss of function mutations affecting three different members of the CLC channel family lead to three human inherited diseases : myotonia congenita, Dent's disease, and Bartter's syndrome. These diseases, together with the diabetes insipidus symptoms of a knockout mouse model, emphasize the physiologic relevance of this ion channel family. (+info)
Respiratory abdominal muscle recruitment and chest wall motion in myotonic muscular dystrophy.
Abdominal muscles are selectively active in normal subjects during stress and may increase the potential energy for inspiration by reducing the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV). We hypothesized that a similar process would occur in subjects with myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), but would be less effective, because of to their weakness and altered chest wall mechanics. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) of the transversus abdominis (TA), internal oblique (IO), external oblique, and rectus abdominis was recorded in 10 MMD and 10 control subjects. EMG activity, respiratory inductive plethysmography, and gastric pressure were recorded during static pressure measurement and at increasing levels of inspiratory resistance breathing. EELV was reduced and chest wall motion was synchronous only in controls. Although the TA and IO were selectively recruited in both groups, EMG activity of the MMD group was twice that of controls at the same inspiratory pressure. In MMD subjects with mildly reduced forced vital capacity, significant differences can be seen in abdominal muscle recruitment, wall motion, work of breathing, and ventilatory parameters. (+info)
Increased rigidity of the chiral centre of tocainide favours stereoselectivity and use-dependent block of skeletal muscle Na(+) channels enhancing the antimyotonic activity in vivo.
1. Searching for the structural requirements improving the potency and the stereoselectivity of Na(+) channel blockers as antimyotonic agents, new derivatives of tocainide, in which the chiral carbon atom is constrained in a rigid alpha-proline or pyrrolo-imidazolic cycle, were synthesized as pure enantiomers. 2. Their ability to block Na(+) currents, elicited from -100 to -20 mV at 0.3 Hz (tonic block) and 2-10 Hz (use-dependent block) frequencies, was investigated in vitro on single fibres of frog semitendinosus muscle using the vaseline-gap voltage-clamp method. 3. The alpha-proline derivative, To5, was 5 and 21 fold more potent than tocainide in producing tonic and 10 Hz-use-dependent block, respectively. Compared to To5, the presence of one methyl group on the aminic (To6) or amidic (To7) nitrogen atom decreased use-dependence by 2- and 6-times, respectively. When methylene moieties were present on both nitrogen atoms (To8), both tonic and use-dependent block were reduced. 4. Contrarily to tocainide, all proline derivatives were stereoselective in relation to an increased rigidity. A further increase in the molecular rigidity as in pyrrolo-imidazolic derivatives markedly decreased the drug potency with respect to tocainide. 5. Antimyotonic activity, evaluated as the shortening of the time of righting reflexes of myotonic adr/adr mice upon acute drug in vivo administration was 3 fold more effective for R-To5 than for R-Tocainide. 6. Thus, constraining the chiral centre of tocainide in alpha-proline cycle leads to more potent and stereoselective use-dependent Na(+) channel blockers with improved therapeutic potential. (+info)