Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast.
Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself. (+info)
The tail of a yeast class V myosin, myo2p, functions as a localization domain.
Myo2p is a yeast class V myosin that functions in membrane trafficking. To investigate the function of the carboxyl-terminal-tail domain of Myo2p, we have overexpressed this domain behind the regulatable GAL1 promoter (MYO2DN). Overexpression of the tail domain of Myo2p results in a dominant-negative phenotype that is phenotypically similar to a temperature-sensitive allele of myo2, myo2-66. The tail domain of Myo2p is sufficient for localization at low- expression levels and causes mislocalization of the endogenous Myo2p from sites of polarized cell growth. Subcellular fractionation of polarized, mechanically lysed yeast cells reveals that Myo2p is present predominantly in a 100,000 x g pellet. The Myo2p in this pellet is not solubilized by Mg++-ATP or Triton X-100, but is solubilized by high salt. Tail overexpression does not disrupt this fractionation pattern, nor do mutations in sec4, sec3, sec9, cdc42, or myo2. These results show that overexpression of the tail domain of Myo2p does not compete with the endogenous Myo2p for assembly into a pelletable structure, but does compete with the endogenous Myo2p for a factor that is necessary for localization to the bud tip. (+info)
Rho3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton and exocytosis, is a GTPase which interacts with Myo2 and Exo70.
The Rho3 protein plays a critical role in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by directing proper cell growth. Rho3 appears to influence cell growth by regulating polarized secretion and the actin cytoskeleton, since rho3 mutants exhibit large rounded cells with an aberrant actin cytoskeleton. To gain insights into how Rho3 influences these events, we have carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen using an S. cerevisiae cDNA library to identify proteins interacting with Rho3. Two proteins, Exo70 and Myo2, were identified in this screen. Interactions with these two proteins are greatly reduced or abolished when mutations are introduced into the Rho3 effector domain. In addition, a type of mutation known to produce dominant negative mutants of Rho proteins abolished the interaction with both of these proteins. In contrast, Rho3 did not interact with protein kinase C (Pkc1), an effector of another Rho family protein, Rho1, nor did Rho1 interact with Exo70 or Myo2. Rho3 did interact with Bni1, another effector of Rho1, but less efficiently than with Rho1. The interaction between Rho3 and Exo70 and between Rho3 and Myo2 was also demonstrated with purified proteins. The interaction between Exo70 and Rho3 in vitro was dependent on the presence of GTP, since Rho3 complexed with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) interacted more efficiently with Exo70 than Rho3 complexed with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiodiphosphate). Overlapping subcellular localization of the Rho3 and Exo70 proteins was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. In addition, patterns of localization of both Exo70 and Rho3 were altered when a dominant active allele of RHO3, RHO3(E129,A131), which causes a morphological abnormality, was expressed. These results provide a direct molecular basis for the action of Rho3 on exocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton. (+info)
Phosphorylation of the myosin-II light chain does not regulate the timing of cytokinesis in fission yeast.
Proper coordination of cytokinesis with chromosome separation during mitosis is crucial to ensure that each daughter cell inherits an equivalent set of chromosomes. It has been proposed that one mechanism by which this is achieved is through temporally regulated myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation (Satterwhite, L. L., and Pollard, T. D. (1992) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 4, 43-52). A variety of evidence is consistent with this model. A direct test of the importance of RLC phosphorylation in vivo has been done only in Dictyostelium and Drosophila; phosphorylation of the RLC is essential in Drosophila (Jordan, P., and Karess, R. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 1805-1819) but not essential in Dictyostelium (Ostrow, B. D., Chen, P., and Chisholm, R. L. (1994) J. Cell Biol. 127, 1945-1955). The Schizosaccharomyces pombe myosin light chain Cdc4p is essential for cytokinesis, but it was unknown whether phosphorylation played a role in its regulation. Here we show that the S. pombe myosin light chain Cdc4p is phosphorylated in vivo on either serine 2 or 6 but not both. Mutation of either or both of these sites to alanine did not effect the ability of Cdc4p to bind the type II myosin Myo2p, and cells expressing only these mutated versions of Cdc4p grew and divided normally. Similarly, mutation of Ser-2, Ser-6, or both residues to aspartic acid did not affect growth or division of cells. Thus we conclude that phosphorylation of Cdc4p is not essential in vivo for the function of the protein. (+info)
The COOH-terminal domain of Myo2p, a yeast myosin V, has a direct role in secretory vesicle targeting.
MYO2 encodes a type V myosin heavy chain needed for the targeting of vacuoles and secretory vesicles to the growing bud of yeast. Here we describe new myo2 alleles containing conditional lethal mutations in the COOH-terminal tail domain. Within 5 min of shifting to the restrictive temperature, the polarized distribution of secretory vesicles is abolished without affecting the distribution of actin or the mutant Myo2p, showing that the tail has a direct role in vesicle targeting. We also show that the actin cable-dependent translocation of Myo2p to growth sites does not require secretory vesicle cargo. Although a fusion protein containing the Myo2p tail also concentrates at growth sites, this accumulation depends on the polarized delivery of secretory vesicles, implying that the Myo2p tail binds to secretory vesicles. Most of the new mutations alter a region of the Myo2p tail conserved with vertebrate myosin Vs but divergent from Myo4p, the myosin V involved in mRNA transport, and genetic data suggest that the tail interacts with Smy1p, a kinesin homologue, and Sec4p, a vesicle-associated Rab protein. The data support a model in which the Myo2p tail tethers secretory vesicles, and the motor transports them down polarized actin cables to the site of exocytosis. (+info)
The Rho GTPase Rho3 has a direct role in exocytosis that is distinct from its role in actin polarity.
Budding yeast grow asymmetrically by the polarized delivery of proteins and lipids to specific sites on the plasma membrane. This requires the coordinated polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and the secretory apparatus. We identified Rho3 on the basis of its genetic interactions with several late-acting secretory genes. Mutational analysis of the Rho3 effector domain reveals three distinct functions in cell polarity: regulation of actin polarity, transport of exocytic vesicles from the mother cell to the bud, and docking and fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane. We provide evidence that the vesicle delivery function of Rho3 is mediated by the unconventional myosin Myo2 and that the docking and fusion function is mediated by the exocyst component Exo70. These data suggest that Rho3 acts as a key regulator of cell polarity and exocytosis, coordinating several distinct events for delivery of proteins to specific sites on the cell surface. (+info)
Myosin-II tails confer unique functions in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: characterization of a novel myosin-II tail.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two myosin-IIs, Myo2p and Myp2p, which both concentrate in the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. We studied the phenotype of mutant myosin-II strains to examine whether these myosins have overlapping functions in the cell. myo2(+) is essential. myp2(+) cannot rescue loss of myo2(+) even at elevated levels of expression. myp2(+) is required under specific nutritional conditions; thus myo2(+) cannot rescue under these conditions. Studies with chimeras show that the tails rather than the structurally similar heads determine the gene-specific functions of myp2(+) and myo2(+). The Myo2p tail is a rod-shaped coiled-coil dimer that aggregates in low salt like other myosin-II tails. The Myp2p tail is monomeric in high salt and is insoluble in low salt. Biophysical properties of the full-length Myp2p tail and smaller subdomains indicate that two predicted coiled-coil regions fold back on themselves to form a rod-shaped antiparallel coiled coil. This suggests that Myp2p is the first type II myosin with only one head. The C-terminal two-thirds of Myp2p tail are essential for function in vivo and may interact with components of the salt response pathway. (+info)
Direct involvement of yeast type I myosins in Cdc42-dependent actin polymerization.
The generation of cortical actin filaments is necessary for processes such as cell motility and cell polarization. Several recent studies have demonstrated that Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family proteins and the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex are key factors in the nucleation of actin filaments in diverse eukaryotic organisms. To identify other factors involved in this process, we have isolated proteins that bind to Bee1p/Las17p, the yeast WASP-like protein, by affinity chromatography and mass spectroscopic analysis. The yeast type I myosins, Myo3p and Myo5p, have both been identified as Bee1p-interacting proteins. Like Bee1p, these myosins are essential for cortical actin assembly as assayed by in vitro reconstitution of actin nucleation sites in permeabilized yeast cells. Analysis using this assay further demonstrated that the motor activity of these myosins is required for the polymerization step, and that actin polymerization depends on phosphorylation of myosin motor domain by p21-activated kinases (PAKs), downstream effectors of the small guanosine triphosphatase, Cdc42p. The type I myosins also interact with the Arp2/3 complex through a sequence at the end of the tail domain homologous to the Arp2/3-activating region of WASP-like proteins. Combined deletions of the Arp2/3-interacting domains of Bee1p and the type I myosins abolish actin nucleation sites at the cortex, suggesting that these proteins function redundantly in the activation of the Arp2/3 complex. (+info)