The determination of hemoglobin and myoglogin residues as a parameter for testing heat exposure in back bacon.
The use of an extraction of the heme pigments hemoglobin and myoglobin as a test for the heat exposure of back bacon was investigated by treating back bacon at varying temperatures of 50-70 degrees C and times of two to 180 minutes and observing the effect on the absorbance of heme pigment residue after nitrite oxidation. Absorbance at 409 nm was used in place of the more usual 540 nm to provide greater sensitivity in the detection of heme. A decrease in residual heme pigments was time-dependent, particularly at lower temperatures. In view of this factor and the complex nature of the heat exposure of a large block of back bacon, the application of this test would require a calibration of each process. Alternatively, limits to the amounts of heme pigment residue could be set. The heme pigment test is useful in its simplicity and overcomes difficulties associated with the coagulation and enzyme tests. (+info
Myocardial oxygenation during high work states in hearts with postinfarction remodeling.
BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen availability is the basis for these HEP abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation in swine. Studies were performed in 20 normal animals, 14 animals with compensated LVR, and 9 animals with CHF. Phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP was determined with 31P NMR and deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) with 1H NMR in myocardium remote from the infarct. Basal PCr/ATP tended to be decreased in postinfarct hearts, and this was significant in animals with CHF. Infusion of dobutamine (20 microg x kg-1 x min-1 IV) caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in both normal and LVR hearts and resulted in comparable significant decreases of PCr/ATP in both groups. This decrease in PCr/ATP was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. In CHF hearts, rate-pressure product increased only 40% in response to dobutamine; this attenuated response also was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the decrease of PCr/ATP during dobutamine infusion is not the result of insufficient myocardial oxygen availability. Furthermore, in CHF hearts, the low basal PCr/ATP and the attenuated response to dobutamine occurred in the absence of myocardial hypoxia, indicating that the HEP and contractile abnormalities were not the result of insufficient oxygen availability. (+info
Structural dynamics of ligand diffusion in the protein matrix: A study on a new myoglobin mutant Y(B10) Q(E7) R(E10).
A triple mutant of sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) [Leu(B10) --> Tyr, His(E7) --> Gln, and Thr(E10) --> Arg, called Mb-YQR], investigated by stopped-flow, laser photolysis, crystallography, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, proved to be quite unusual. Rebinding of photodissociated NO, O2, and CO from within the protein (in a "geminate" mode) allows us to reach general conclusions about dynamics and cavities in proteins. The 3D structure of oxy Mb-YQR shows that bound O2 makes two H-bonds with Tyr(B10)29 and Gln(E7)64; on deoxygenation, these two residues move toward the space occupied by O2. The bimolecular rate constant for NO binding is the same as for wild-type, but those for CO and O2 binding are reduced 10-fold. While there is no geminate recombination with O2 and CO, geminate rebinding of NO displays an unusually large and very slow component, which is pretty much abolished in the presence of xenon. These results and MD simulations suggest that the ligand migrates in the protein matrix to a major "secondary site," located beneath Tyr(B10)29 and accessible via the motion of Ile(G8)107; this site is different from the "primary site" identified by others who investigated the photolyzed state of wild-type Mb by crystallography. Our hypothesis may rationalize the O2 binding properties of Mb-YQR, and more generally to propose a mechanism of control of ligand binding and dissociation in hemeproteins based on the dynamics of side chains that may (or may not) allow access to and direct temporary sequestration of the dissociated ligand in a docking site within the protein. This interpretation suggests that very fast (picosecond) fluctuations of amino acid side chains may play a crucial role in controlling O2 delivery to tissue at a rate compatible with physiology. (+info
Specificity of native-like interhelical hydrophobic contacts in the apomyoglobin intermediate.
On exposure to mildly acidic conditions, apomyoglobin forms a partially folded intermediate, I. The A, B, G, and H helices are significantly structured in this equilibrium intermediate, whereas the remainder of the protein is largely unfolded. We report here the effects of mutations at helix pairing sites on the stability of I in three classes of mutants that: (i) truncate hydrophobic side chains in native helix packing sites, (ii) truncate hydrophobic side chains not involved in interhelical contacts, and (iii) extend hydrophobic side chains at residues not involved in interhelical contacts. Class I mutants significantly decrease the stability and cooperativity of folding of the intermediate. Class II and III mutants show smaller effects on stability and have little effect on cooperativity. Qualitatively similar results to those found in I were obtained for all three classes of mutants in native myoglobin (N), demonstrating that hydrophobic burial is fairly specific to native helix packing sites in I as well as in N. These results suggest that hydrophobic burial along native-like interhelical contacts is important for the formation of the cooperatively folded intermediate. (+info
Development of diving capacity in emperor penguins.
To compare the diving capacities of juvenile and adult emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri, and to determine the physiological variables underlying the diving ability of juveniles, we monitored diving activity in juvenile penguins fitted with satellite-linked time/depth recorders and examined developmental changes in body mass (Mb), hemoglobin concentration, myoglobin (Mb) content and muscle citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Diving depth, diving duration and time-at-depth histograms were obtained from two fledged juveniles during the first 2.5 months after their depature from the Cape Washingon colony in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. During this period, values of all three diving variables increased progressively. After 8-10 weeks at sea, 24-41 % of transmitted maximum diving depths were between 80 and 200 m. Although most dives lasted less than 2 min during the 2 month period, 8-25 % of transmitted dives in the last 2 weeks lasted 2-4 min. These values are lower than those previously recorded in adults during foraging trips. Of the physiological variables examined during chick and juvenile development, only Mb and Mb content did not approach adult values. In both near-fledge chicks and juveniles, Mb was 50-60 % of adult values and Mb content was 24-31 % of adult values. This suggests that the increase in diving capacity of juveniles at sea will be most dependent on changes in these factors. (+info
Low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) as adjuvant treatment of thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction--a pilot study: biochemical markers in acute coronary syndromes (BIOMACS II).
OBJECTIVES: This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial evaluated the effect of dalteparin as an adjuvant to thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction regarding early reperfusion, recurrent ischemia and patency at 24 h. BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparin, given subcutaneously twice daily without monitoring, might be an attractive alternative to conventional intravenous heparin in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: In 101 patients dalteparin/placebo 100 IU/kg was given just before streptokinase and a second injection 120 IU/kg after 12 h. Monitoring with continuous vector-ECG was done to obtain signs of early reperfusion and later ischemic episodes. Blood samples for myoglobin were obtained at start and after 90 min to evaluate signs of reperfusion. Coronary angiography was performed after 20-28 h to evaluate TIMI-flow in the infarct-related artery. RESULTS: Dalteparin added to streptokinase tended to provide a higher rate of TIMI grade 3 flow in infarct-related artery compared to placebo, 68% versus 51% (p = 0.10). Dalteparin had no effects on noninvasive signs of early reperfusion. In patients with signs of early reperfusion, there seemed to be a higher rate of TIMI grade 3 flow, 74% versus 46% (myoglobin) (p = 0.04) and 73% versus 52% (vector-ECG) (p = 0.11). Ischemic episodes 6-24 h. after start of treatment were fewer in the dalteparin group, 16% versus 38% (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: When dalteparin was added as an adjuvant to streptokinase and aspirin, there were tendencies for less ECG monitoring evidence of recurrent ischemia and better patency at 24 h, warranting further study. (+info
Direct sedimentation analysis of interference optical data in analytical ultracentrifugation.
Sedimentation data acquired with the interference optical scanning system of the Optima XL-I analytical ultracentrifuge can exhibit time-invariant noise components, as well as small radial-invariant baseline offsets, both superimposed onto the radial fringe shift data resulting from the macromolecular solute distribution. A well-established method for the interpretation of such ultracentrifugation data is based on the analysis of time-differences of the measured fringe profiles, such as employed in the g(s*) method. We demonstrate how the technique of separation of linear and nonlinear parameters can be used in the modeling of interference data by unraveling the time-invariant and radial-invariant noise components. This allows the direct application of the recently developed approximate analytical and numerical solutions of the Lamm equation to the analysis of interference optical fringe profiles. The presented method is statistically advantageous since it does not require the differentiation of the data and the model functions. The method is demonstrated on experimental data and compared with the results of a g(s*) analysis. It is also demonstrated that the calculation of time-invariant noise components can be useful in the analysis of absorbance optical data. They can be extracted from data acquired during the approach to equilibrium, and can be used to increase the reliability of the results obtained from a sedimentation equilibrium analysis. (+info
Convective oxygen transport and tissue oxygen consumption in Weddell seals during aerobic dives.
Unlike their terrestrial counterparts, marine mammals stop breathing and reduce their convective oxygen transport while performing activities (e.g. foraging, courtship, aggressive interactions, predator avoidance and migration) that require sustained power output during submergence. Since most voluntary dives are believed to remain aerobic, the goal of this study was to examine the potential importance of the dive response in optimizing the use of blood and muscle oxygen stores during dives involving different levels of muscular exertion. To accomplish this, we designed a numerical model based on Fick's principle that integrated cardiac output (Vb), regional blood flow, convective oxygen transport (Q(O2)), muscle oxymyoglobin desaturation and regional rates of oxygen consumption (VO2). The model quantified how the optimal matching or mismatching of QO2 to VO2 affected the aerobic dive limit (ADL). We chose an adult Weddell seal Leptonycotes weddellii on which to base our model because of available data on the diving physiology and metabolism of this species. The results show that the use of blood and muscle oxygen stores must be completed at the same time to maximize the ADL for each level of VO2. This is achieved by adjusting Vb (range 19-94 % of resting levels) and muscle QO2 according to the rate of muscle oxygen consumption (VMO2). At higher values of VMO2, Vb and muscle perfusion must increase to maintain an appropriate QO2/VO2 ratio so that available blood and muscle oxygen stores are depleted at the same time. Although the dive response does not sequester blood oxygen exclusively for brain and heart metabolism during aerobic dives, as it does during forced submersion, a reduction in Vb and muscle perfusion below resting levels is necessary to maximize the ADL over the range of diving VO2 (approximately 2-9 ml O2 min-1 kg-1). Despite the reduction in Vb, convective oxygen transport is adequate to maintain aerobic metabolism and normal function in the splanchnic organs, kidneys and other peripheral tissues. As a result, physiological homeostasis is maintained throughout the dive. The model shows that the cardiovascular adjustments known as the dive response enable the diving seal to balance the conflicting metabolic demands of (1) optimizing the distribution and use of blood and muscle oxygen stores to maximize the ADL over the normal range of diving VO2 and (2) ensuring that active muscle receives adequate oxygen as VMO2 increases. (+info