Increment of calcium-activated and delayed rectifier potassium current by hyposmotic swelling in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pig.
AIM: To observe the effect of hyposmotic swelling on calcium-activated potassium current [IKCa] and delayed rectifier potassium current [IKV] in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pig. METHODS: The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used, and the myocytes were isolated by collagenase. Cells were swelled by the hyposmotic solution (200 Osmmol/kg). RESULTS: The hyposmotic solution markedly increased IKCa and IKV. The increase of IKCa was markedly inhibited by tetrathylammonium (TEA) 4 mmol/L and charybdotoxin (ChTX) 200 nmol/L. The increase of IKV was incompletely blocked by TEA and completely blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) 10 mmol/L. There was no significant difference between the amplitudes of the increase of IKCa and IKV (P < 0.05). IKCa increased (17.0 +/- 4.8) s after the cells were perfused with the hyposmotic solution, whereas IKV increased (30.7 +/- 13.7) s after the cells exposed to the hyposmotic solution. There was significant difference between the latency of IKCa and IKV (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hyposmotic swelling increased both IKCa and IKV, and the increment was likely related to the cell volume regulation. (+info)
Antiproliferative effects of D-polymannuronic sulfate on rat vascular smooth muscle cells and its related mechanisms.
AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of D-polymannuronic sulfate (DPS) on the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and its related mechanisms. METHODS: The effects of DPS on Ang II-induced proliferation of VSMC were evaluated by MTT assay. The intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations, protein contents, and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: DPS 0.001 - 100 mg/L blocked the cell cycle at the G0/G1-->S transit and prevented the cells from entering into the G2/M phase, and its inhibitory effects on an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations and the protein synthesis of VSMC were also observed. Also, the suppressing actions of DPS on intracellular Ca2+ were completely blocked by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, indicating that the counteracting effects on a rise in intracellular free Ca2+ contents by DPS might be mediated by participation of NO. CONCLUSION: DPS exerted an inhibitory effect on Ang II-induced proliferation of VSMC and its related mechanisms were considered to be related to its inhibition on the increment of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, which subsequently suppressed the synthesis of DNA and protein of VSMC. (+info)
Stretch-induced calcium release in smooth muscle.
Smooth muscle cells undergo substantial increases in length, passively stretching during increases in intraluminal pressure in vessels and hollow organs. Active contractile responses to counteract increased transmural pressure were first described almost a century ago (Bayliss, 1902) and several mechanisms have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. We report here that elongation of smooth muscle cells results in ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in individual myocytes. Mechanical elongation of isolated, single urinary bladder myocytes to approximately 120% of slack length (DeltaL = 20) evoked Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores in the form of single Ca(2+) sparks and propagated Ca(2+) waves. Ca(2+) release was not due to calcium-induced calcium release, as release was observed in Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution and when free Ca(2+) ions in the cytosol were strongly buffered to prevent increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Stretch-induced calcium release (SICR) was not affected by inhibition of InsP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) release, but was completely blocked by ryanodine. Release occurred in the absence of previously reported stretch-activated currents; however, SICR evoked calcium-activated chloride currents in the form of transient inward currents, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for the generation of spontaneous currents in smooth muscle. SICR was also observed in individual myocytes during stretch of intact urinary bladder smooth muscle segments. Thus, longitudinal stretch of smooth muscle cells induces Ca(2+) release through gating of RYR. SICR may be an important component of the physiological response to increases in luminal pressure in smooth muscle tissues. (+info)
K+-induced hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery: identification, localization and role of Na+/K+-ATPases.
1. Mechanisms underlying K(+)-induced hyperpolarizations in the presence and absence of phenylephrine were investigated in endothelium-denuded rat mesenteric arteries (for all mean values, n=4). 2. Myocyte resting membrane potential (m.p.) was -58.8+/-0.8 mV. Application of 5 mM KCl produced similar hyperpolarizations in the absence (17.6+/-0.7 mV) or presence (15.8+/-1.0 mV) of 500 nM ouabain. In the presence of ouabain +30 microM barium, hyperpolarization to 5 mM KCl was essentially abolished. 3. In the presence of 10 microM phenylephrine (m.p. -33.7+/-3 mV), repolarization to 5 mM KCl did not occur in the presence or absence of 4-aminopyridine but was restored (-26.9+/-1.8 mV) on addition of iberiotoxin (100 nM). Under these conditions the K+-induced repolarization was insensitive to barium (30 microM) but abolished by 500 nM ouabain alone. 4. In the presence of phenylephrine + iberiotoxin the hyperpolarization to 5 mM K(+) was inhibited in the additional presence of 300 nM levcromakalim, an action which was reversed by 10 microM glibenclamide. 5. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical techniques collectively showed the presence of alpha(1)-, alpha(2)- and alpha(3)-subunits of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the myocytes. 6. In K(+)-free solution, re-introduction of K(+) (to 4.6 mM) hyperpolarized myocytes by 20.9+/-0.5 mV, an effect unchanged by 500 nM ouabain but abolished by 500 microM ouabain. 7. We conclude that under basal conditions, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases containing alpha(2)- and/or alpha(3)-subunits are partially responsible for the observed K(+)-induced effects. The opening of myocyte K(+) channels (by levcromakalim or phenylephrine) creates a 'K(+) cloud' around the cells which fully activates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and thereby abolishes further responses to [K(+)](o) elevation. (+info)
MEK/ERK pathway mediates cell-shape-dependent plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene expression upon drug-induced disruption of the microfilament and microtubule networks.
Changes in cellular morphology induced as a consequence of direct perturbation of cytoskeletal structure with network-specific targeting agents (i.e. microfilament- or microtubule-disrupting drugs) results in the stimulated expression of a specific subset of genes. Transcription of c-fos, collagenase, transforming growth factor-beta, actin, urokinase plasminogen activator and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) appears to be particularly responsive to shape-activated signaling pathways. Cytochalasin D (CD) or colchicine treatment of contact-inhibited and serum-deprived vascular smooth muscle (R22) cells was used, therefore, as a model system to evaluate morphology-associated controls on PAI-1 gene regulation in the absence of added growth factors. PAI-1 transcript levels in quiescent R22 cells increased rapidly and in a CD-concentration-dependent fashion, with kinetics of expression paralleling the morphological changes. Colchicine concentrations that effectively disrupted microtubule structure and reduced the cellular 'footprint' area (to approximately that of CD treatment) also stimulated PAI-1 synthesis. Shape-related increases in PAI-1 mRNA synthesis were ablated by prior exposure to actinomycin D. Unlike the mechanism of induction in growth-factor-stimulated cells, CD- and colchicine-induced PAI-1 expression required on-going protein synthesis (i.e. it was a secondary response). Although PAI-1 is a TGF-beta-regulated gene and TGF-beta expression is also shape dependent, an autocrine TGF-beta loop was not a factor in CD-initiated PAI-1 transcription. Since CD exposure resulted in actin microfilament disruption and subsequent morphological changes, with uncertain effects on interactions between signaling intermediates or 'scaffold' structures, a pharmacological approach was selected to probe the pathways involved. Signaling events leading to PAI-1 induction were compared with colchicine-treated cells. CD- as well as colchicine-stimulated PAI-1 expression was effectively and dose dependently attenuated by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 (in the 10 to 25 microM concentration range), consistent with the known MAP kinase dependency of PAI-1 synthesis in growth-factor-stimulated cells. Reduced PAI-1 mRNA levels upon exposure to genistein prior to CD addition correlated with inhibition of ERK1/2 activity, implicating a tyrosine kinase in shape-dependent MEK activation. Src-family kinases, moreover, appeared to be specific upstream elements in the CD- and colchicine-dependent pathways of PAI-1 transcription since both agents effectively activated pp60(c-src) kinase activity in quiescent R22 cells. The restrictive (src-family) kinase inhibitor PP1 completely inhibited induced, as well as basal, ERK activity in a coupled immunoprecipitation myelin-basic-protein-phosphorylation assay and ablated shape-initiated PAI-1 mRNA expression. These data suggest that PP1-sensitive tyrosine kinases are upstream intermediates in cell-shape-associated signaling pathways resulting in ERK1/2 activation and subsequent PAI-1 transcription. In contrast to the rapid and transient kinetics of ERK activity typical of serum-stimulated cells, the ERK1/2 response to CD and colchicine is both delayed and relatively sustained. Collectively, these data support a model in which MEK is a focal point for the convergence of shape-initiated signaling events leading to induced PAI-1 transcription. (+info)
Overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 protects smooth muscle cells against oxidative injury and inhibits cell proliferation.
To investigate whether the expression of exogenous heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene within vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) could protect the cells from free radical attack and inhibit cell proliferation, we established an in vitro transfection of human HO-1 gene into rat VSMC mediated by a retroviral vector. The results showed that the profound expression of HO-1 protein as well as HO activity was 1.8- and 2.0-fold increased respectively in the transfected cells compared to the non-transfected ones. The treatment of VSMC with different concentrations of H2O2 led to the remarkable cell damage as indicated by survival rate and LDH leakage. However, the resistance of the HO-1 transfected VSMC against H2O2 was significantly raised. This protective effect was dramatically diminished when the transfected VSMC were pretreated with ZnPP-IX, a specific inhibitor of HO, for 24 h. In addition, we found that the growth potential of the transfected cells was significantly inhibited directly by increased activity of HO-1, and this effect might be related to decreased phosphorylation of MAPK. These results suggest that the overexpression of introduced hHO-1 is potentially able to reduce the risk factors of atherosclerosis, partially due to its cellular protection against oxidative injury and to its inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation. (+info)
Estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta expression in microvascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of myometrium and leiomyoma.
The two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, are likely to have roles in the pathophysiology of fibroid development. They have been detected in myometrial and leiomyoma (fibroid) tissue, but the cell types expressing ERalpha and ERbeta have not been determined. ERs have also been detected in human endothelial cells. The aims of the present study were to determine whether pure populations of myometrial microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) express ERalpha and ERbeta, to compare MEC ERalpha/ERbeta expression with that of pure populations of myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMC) and to determine if ERalpha/ERbeta are differentially expressed in MEC and SMC of myometrium and fibroids from nine paired samples. Using RT-PCR (for ERalpha and ERbeta) and Western blotting (for ERalpha only), we demonstrated that all cultures of early passage myometrial and fibroid SMC (>99% pure) expressed ERalpha but not ERbeta, while myometrial and fibroid MEC (>99% CD31+) constitutively expressed ERbeta. However, both myometrial and fibroid MEC showed variable expression of ERalpha, with approximately 60% of MEC samples expressing ERalpha. While the majority (6/9) of MEC from myometrial and fibroid pairs demonstrated the same pattern of ERalpha expression, 3/9 pairs showed discordant ERalpha expression. These results show that ERalpha and ERbeta are differentially expressed in SMC and MEC of human myometrium and fibroids. Since ERalpha and ERbeta mediate opposing transcriptional activities, any effect of estrogen on the growth and development of fibroids is likely to be complex and may involve both SMC and MEC. (+info)
Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution of a novel human gap junction-forming protein, connexin-31.9. Interaction with zona occludens protein-1.
A novel human connexin gene (GJA11) was cloned from a genomic library. The open reading frame encoded a hypothetical protein of 294 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 31,933, hence referred to as connexin-31.9 (Cx31.9) or alpha 11 connexin. A clone in GenBank containing the Cx31.9 gene localized to chromosome 17q21.2. Northern analysis of Cx31.9 showed a major 4.4-kilobase transcript, which was expressed at varying levels in all tissues analyzed. Two monoclonal antibodies generated against different domains of Cx31.9 recognized a 30-33-kDa protein from cells overexpressing Cx31.9. Immunofluorescence of overexpressing cells indicated the presence of Cx31.9 between adjacent cells, consistent with its localization to gap junctions. Double voltage clamp analyses of Cx31.9-overexpressing cells, and of paired Xenopus oocytes injected with Cx31.9 cRNA, demonstrated junctional currents indicative of gap junction channel formation. In contrast to previously characterized connexins, Cx31.9 showed no voltage-dependent gating within a physiologically relevant range. Cx31.9 was detected in human tissues by immunoblot analysis, and immunofluorescence localized Cx31.9 expression to vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Cx31.9 interacted with ZO-1. Thus, Cx31.9 represents a novel connexin gene that in vivo generates a protein with unique voltage gating properties. (+info)