(1/3052) Differential regulation of Bcl-2, AP-1 and NF-kappaB on cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemic stress adaptation.
Acute ischemia followed by prolonged reperfusion has been shown to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that myocardial adaptation to ischemia induced by repeated cyclic episodes of short-term ischemia each followed by another short duration of reperfusion reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. This was associated with the induction of the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and translocation and activation of NF-kappaB. Another transcription factor, AP-1, remained unaffected by repeated ischemia and reperfusion, but exhibited significant upregulation by a single episode of 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. This activation of AP-1 was inhibited by a scavenger of oxygen free radicals, DMTU. Thirty minutes ischemia and 120 min reperfusion downregulated the induction of the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, but moderately activated NF-kappaB binding activity. This was associated with an increased number of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation in cardiomyocytes which were attenuated by DMTU. The results of this study indicate that Bcl-2, AP-1 and NF-kappaB differentially regulate cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by acute ischemia and prolonged reperfusion. (+info)
(2/3052) Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the activation of heat shock factor 1 in ischemic-reperfused heart.
BACKGROUND: The myocardial protective role of heat shock protein (HSP) has been demonstrated. Recently, we reported that ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant activation of heat shock factor (HSF) 1 and an accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90. We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in the induction of stress response in the ischemic-reperfused heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat hearts were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer by the Langendorff method. Whole-cell extracts were prepared for gel mobility shift assay using oligonucleotides containing the heat shock element. Induction of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90 was examined by Northern blot analysis. Repetitive ischemia/reperfusion, which causes recurrent bursts of free radical generation, resulted in burst activation of HSF1, and this burst activation was significantly reduced with either allopurinol 1 mmol/L (an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase) or catalase 2x10(5) U/L (a scavenger of H2O2). Significant activation of HSF1 was observed on perfusion with buffer containing H2O2 150 micromol/L or xanthine 1 mmol/L plus xanthine oxidase 5 U/L. The accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 or HSP90 after repetitive ischemia/reperfusion was reduced with either allopurinol or catalase. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that ROSs play an important role in the activation of HSF1 and the accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90 in the ischemic-reperfused heart. (+info)
(3/3052) Nonanticoagulant heparin prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion injury in the dog.
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion (IR) remains a clinical problem. We investigated the role of heparin and N-acetylheparin, a nonanticoagulant heparin derivative, in modulating coronary endothelial function after IR injury, with an emphasis on defining the role of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in the heparin-mediated effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mongrel dogs were surgically instrumented, and the effects of both bovine heparin and N-acetylheparin on coronary endothelial vasomotor function, expressed as percent change from baseline flow after acetylcholine challenge, were studied after 15 minutes of regional ischemia of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. In dogs treated with placebo (saline), coronary vasomotor function was significantly (P=0.03) decreased after 15 and 30 minutes of reperfusion (65+/-12% and 73+/-12%) compared with preischemia (103+/-6%). In contrast, the vasodilatory response to the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside was maintained during reperfusion. Preischemic administration of both bovine heparin and N-acetylheparin (6.0 mg/kg IV) preserved coronary endothelial function throughout reperfusion. In a parallel group of dogs, nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and cGMP levels in the LAD were measured after treatment and during 15-minute reperfusion. Preischemic administration of N-acetylheparin caused a significant increase in basal NOx and cGMP levels compared with saline controls. Pretreatment with N-acetylheparin also caused a significant increase in NOx and cGMP levels in the LAD after 15 minutes of reperfusion compared with IR alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that heparin preserves coronary endothelial function after brief IR injury by a mechanism independent of its anticoagulant activity and that the effect of heparin may be mediated in part by activation of the NO-cGMP pathway. (+info)
(4/3052) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha contributes to ischemia- and reperfusion-induced endothelial activation in isolated hearts.
-During myocardial reperfusion, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) adhesion involving the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) may lead to aggravation and prolongation of reperfusion injury. We studied the role of early tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cleavage and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation on ICAM-1 expression and venular adhesion of PMN in isolated hearts after ischemia (15 minutes) and reperfusion (30 to 480 minutes). NF-kappaB activation (electromobility shift assay) was found after 30 minutes of reperfusion and up to 240 minutes. ICAM-1 mRNA, assessed by Northern blot, increased during the same interval. Functional effect of newly synthesized adhesion molecules was found by quantification (in situ fluorescence microscopy) of PMN, given as bolus after ischemia, which became adherent to small coronary venules (10 to 50 microm in diameter). After 480 minutes of reperfusion, ICAM-1-dependent PMN adhesion increased 2.5-fold compared with PMN adhesion obtained during acute reperfusion. To study the influence of NF-kappaB on PMN adhesion, we inhibited NF-kappaB activation by transfection of NF-kappaB decoy oligonucleotides into isolated hearts using HJV-liposomes. Decoy NF-kappaB but not control oligonucleotides blocked ICAM-1 upregulation and inhibited the subacute increase in PMN adhesion. Similar effects were obtained using BB 1101 (10 microg), an inhibitor of TNF-alpha cleavage enzyme. These data suggest that ischemia and reperfusion in isolated hearts cause liberation of TNF-alpha, activation of NF-kappaB, and upregulation of ICAM-1, an adhesion molecule involved in inflammatory response after ischemia and reperfusion. (+info)
(5/3052) Effects of isoproterenol on myocardial structure and function in septic rats.
In this study we sought to determine the effect of sepsis on two sequelae of prolonged (24-h) beta-agonist administration, myocardial hypertrophy and catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) or sham study groups and then further randomized to receive isoproterenol (2.4 mg. kg-1. day-1 iv) or placebo treatment. At 24 h, myocardial function was assessed by using the Langendorff isolated-heart technique or the heart processed for plain light microscopy. We found that 1) sepsis reduced contractile function, indicated by a rightward shift in the Starling curve (ANOVA with repeated measures, sepsis effect, P < 0.002); 2) sepsis-induced myocardial depression was reversed by isoproterenol treatment (isoproterenol effect, P < 0.0001); 3) sepsis reduced, but did not block, isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy (isoproterenol effect, P < 0.0001); 4) sepsis did not protect the heart from catecholamine-induced tissue injury; 5) the septic heart was protected against the effects of ischemiareperfusion (decreased postreperfusion resting tension, ANOVA with repeated measures, P < 0.01), an effect attenuated by isoproterenol treatment (P < 0.005); and 6) sepsis reduced the incidence of sustained asystole or ventricular fibrillation after ischemia-reperfusion (P < 0.05), an effect also attenuated by isoproterenol treatment (P < 0.01). We conclude that, in sepsis, beta-agonists induce changes in myocardial weight and function consistent with acute myocardial hypertrophy. These changes occur at the expense of significant tissue injury and increased sensitivity to ischemia-reperfusion-induced tissue injury. (+info)
(6/3052) Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins in ischemic rat heart.
4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a major lipid peroxidation product formed during oxidative stress. Because of its reactivity with nucleophilic compounds, particularly metabolites and proteins containing thiol groups, HNE is cytotoxic. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and time course for the formation of HNE-modified proteins during ischemia and ischemia plus reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. With an antibody to HNE-Cys/His/Lys and densitometry of Western blots, we quantified the amount of HNE-protein adduct in the heart. By taking biopsies from single hearts (n = 5) at various times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 35, and 40 min) after onset of zero-flow global ischemia, we showed a progressive, time-dependent increase (which peaked after 30 min) in HNE-mediated modification of a discrete number of proteins. In studies with individual hearts (n = 4/group), control aerobic perfusion (70 min) resulted in a very low level (296 arbitrary units) of HNE-protein adduct formation; by contrast, after 30-min ischemia HNE-adduct content increased by >50-fold (15,356 units, P < 0.05). In other studies (n = 4/group), administration of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG, 1 mM) to the heart for 5 min immediately before 30-min ischemia reduced HNE-protein adduct formation during ischemia by approximately 75%. In studies (n = 4/group) that included reperfusion of hearts after 5, 10, 15, or 30 min of ischemia, there was no further increase in the extent of HNE-protein adduct formation over that seen with ischemia alone. Similarly, in experiments with MPG, reperfusion did not significantly influence the tissue content of HNE-protein adduct. Western immunoblot results were confirmed in studies using in situ immunofluorescent localization of HNE-protein in cryosections. In conclusion, ischemia causes a major increase in HNE-protein adduct that would be expected to reflect a toxic sequence of events that might act to compromise tissue survival during ischemia and recovery on reperfusion. (+info)
(7/3052) Metallothionein inhibits ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse heart.
Oxidative stress is believed to play a major role in ischemia-reperfusion injury to the heart. Metallothionein (MT), a potential free radical scavenger, may function in cardiac protection against ischemia-reperfusion damage. To test this hypothesis, a specific cardiac MT-overexpressing transgenic mouse model was used. The hearts isolated from these animals were subjected to 50 min of warm (37 degrees C) zero-flow ischemia followed by 60- or 90-min reflow. Compared with the nontransgenic controls, the transgenic mouse hearts with MT concentrations approximately 10-fold higher than normal showed significantly improved recovery of contractile force postischemia (69.2 +/- 4.2 vs. 26.0 +/- 6.0% at the end of 60-min reperfusion, P < 0.01). Efflux of creatine kinase from these transgenic hearts was reduced by more than 50% (P < 0.01). In addition, the zone of infarction induced by ischemia-reperfusion at the end of 90-min reperfusion was suppressed by approximately 40% (P < 0.01) in the transgenic hearts. The results strongly indicate that MT provides protection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced heart injury. (+info)
(8/3052) Acute exercise can improve cardioprotection without increasing heat shock protein content.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute bouts of exercise on myocardial recovery after ischemia and heat shock protein expression. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: 1) 1-day run (1DR; n = 6) and 2) 3-day run (3DR; n = 7), in which rats ran for 100 min at a speed of 20 m/min up a 6 degrees grade for 1 or 3 consecutive days; 3) 1-day cold run (1CR), in which rats ran the same as 1DR but with wet fur at 8 degrees C, which prevented an elevation of core temperature (n = 8); 4) heat shock sedentary (HS), in which rats had their core temperatures raised to 42 degrees C one time for 15 min (n = 5); and 5) sedentary control (n=15). Cardiac function was analyzed 24 h after the last treatment using an isolated, working heart model. Nonpaced hearts were initially perfused under normoxic conditions, then underwent 17 min of global, normothermic (37 degrees C) ischemia, and, finally, were allowed to recover for 30 min under normoxic conditions. The concentration of the 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP 72) was measured in each left ventricle. Compared with that in the sedentary group, recovery of cardiac output x systolic pressure (CO x SP) was enhanced (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups when the postischemic value was covaried with the preischemic value. No differences in CO x SP were found (P > 0.05) between the following groups: 1DR vs. 3DR, 1DR vs. HS, and 1DR vs. 1CR. Heat shock protein concentration was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that in the sedentary controls in HS, 1DR, and 3DR groups, but not for 1CR. The concentration of HSP 72 was not significantly correlated with postischemic CO x SP (R2 = 0.197, P > 0.05). We conclude that acute bouts of exercise can produce cardioprotective effects without an elevation of HSP 72. (+info)