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(1/47) Surgical treatment of myocardial bridging: report of 31 cases.

BACKGROUND: Myocardial bridging (MB) is usually considered a benign condition but may result in myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction (MI), exercise-induced tachycardia, atrioventricular conduction block or even sudden cardiac death. This retrospective study summarizes our operative methods and outcomes for treatment of 31 cases of MB. METHODS: From January 1997 to December 2006, 31 consecutive patients (24 men and 7 women; aged 35 - 67 years; mean 52.3 years) with MB underwent surgical treatment. Thirteen patients had MB only and 18 patients had MB associated with other heart diseases. In preoperative cardiac function grading, 5 patients were in NYHA class I and 18 in NYHA class II and 8 in NYHA class III. Among them, 15 underwent myotomy and 16 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). RESULTS: All patients survived and recovered uneventfully. Neither hospital or late death nor major complications occurred. Postoperative exercise testing in all patients failed to reveal any persistent ischemia. Follow-up time was 3 - 115 months (mean 31 months). Follow-up angiographic studies in 21 patients (68%) demonstrated restoration of coronary blood flow and myocardial perfusion without significant residual compression of the artery. All patients were symptom-free and currently in NYHA class I - II. CONCLUSION: The patients who are refractory to medication should actively undergo the surgical procedures such as myotomy and CABG. Myotomy should be advocated as the first choice because of its safety and satisfactory results.  (+info)

(2/47) Myocardial bridging detection by non-invasive multislice spiral computed tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound.

BACKGROUND: Invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is current diagnostic standard for myocardial bridging (MB). Non-invasive multislice computerized tomography coronary angiography (MSCT) technique has provided a good anatomical view of the tunnel artery now. METHODS: A total of 51 consecutive patients with atypical or typical angina scheduled for IVUS were enrolled in this study and MSCT was performed 7 days before IVUS. Coronary imaging was quantified using IVUS and MSCT. Four main vessels (left main artery (LMA), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), right coronary artery (RCA)) were examined. RESULTS: Forty-one out of 51 (80%) patients received metaprolol (25 mg) before the MSCT scan and 25 of them were current beta-blocker users. The mean heart rate was (64 +/- 3) beats per minute. A total of 51 patients underwent IVUS examination (30 with MB and 21 without MB) were chosen for this study. Twenty-eight out of 30 MB cases were correctly diagnosed by MSCT and 2 patients with MB were not detected. Comparison with IVUS, the sensitivity of detection by MSCT was 93%, specificity was 100%. The lumen diameter of the tunnel artery derived from MSCT and IVUS significantly decreased from (2.9 +/- 0.3) mm to (2.4 +/- 0.4) mm (P < 0.001) and from (3.3 +/- 0.3) mm to (2.6 +/- 0.5) mm (P < 0.001), respectively. Minimal and maximal diameters of MB derived from MSCT were significantly smaller than those from IVUS ((2.4 +/- 0.4) mm vs (2.6 +/- 0.5) mm, P < 0.05 and (2.9 +/- 0.3) mm vs (3.3 +/- 0.3) mm, P < 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MSCT offers a reliable non-invasive method for MB in LAD and atherosclerosis diagnosis with diagnostic accuracy comparable with invasive IVUS.  (+info)

(3/47) The angiographic aspects of myocardial bridges in Turkish patients who have undergone coronary angiography.

INTRODUCTION: Little is known of the clinical significance of myocardial bridges, which may be recognised as the narrowing of the systolic coronary artery as seen in an angiography. In this study, our goal was to review the literature information about the anatomic aspects, the clinical manifestations and implications, and the angiographic characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The angiographic data of 7200 adult patients undergoing coronary angiography were retrospectively analysed for the diagnosis of myocardial bridge. The main angiographic evidence of a myocardial bridge that we required was the narrowing of a systolic coronary artery resulting in at least 50% reduction of lumen diameter in comparison with the diastolic phase. All coronary angiograms were reviewed independently by at least 2 of the authors and the case was included only if there was a consensus that the myocardial bridge resulted in 50% narrowing or more. RESULTS: Myocardial bridge was present in 29 (0.4%) of the 7200 coronary angiographies. The location of the myocardial bridge was in the left anterior descending coronary artery in 28 cases (96.5%), and the left circumflex coronary artery in 1 case (3.4%). Myocardial bridge was most common in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (78.5 %). Each of these patients with myocardial bridge was referred for angiography because of symptom of chest pain alone or symptom of chest pain, palpitations and dyspnoea. Of the 29 patients with myocardial bridge, 2 patients without any symptom, demonstrated ischaemia as assessed by Tc- 99m MIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. CONCLUSION: Chest pain was the common reason for angiography in patients with myocardial bridge. The incidence of myocardial bridge may vary according to population. Myocardial bridge is more frequently found in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery.  (+info)

(4/47) Postural tachycardia syndrome and coronary artery bridge.

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(5/47) Angiographic prevalence of myocardial bridging in a defined very large number of Chinese patients with chest pain.

BACKGROUND: Muscle fibers overlying the intramyocardial segment of an epicardial coronary artery are termed myocardial bridging (MB). Variable prevalence of MB has been described at autopsy and angiographic series with small and large sample size studies. In addition, no similar study was reported in Chinese population. The aim of this study was to investigate the angiographic prevalence of MB in consecutive 37,106 Chinese patients with chest pain from our center. METHODS: We conducted an observational study to evaluate the consecutive cases with MB among patients undergone selective coronary angiography, and analyzed the angiograhic prevalence and clinical features of MB in this study of very large sample size. RESULTS: Among 37 105 patients with chest pain we found 1002 cases with 1011 MBs in a retrospective manner, and the overall prevalence was 2.70%. Although more than 99% (991/1002) of patients had single bridge, 8 cases were found to have more than two MBs (seven with two, and one with three). Altogether 54.39% of cases (545/1002) had MB without atherosclerotic lesions, and 96.24% (973/1011) of bridging located in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), mainly in the middle of LAD (792/1011, 78.33%). According to Nobel classification, of the single bridge (n=991), <50% of obstruction was predominant (471/991, 47.52%). Totally 50%-69% accounted for 34.81% (345/991), >70% of obstruction was 17.65% (175/991). CONCLUSIONS: These data showed that the prevalence of angiographically detectable MB in Chinese patients with chest pain was similar to those of the previous studies, with 2.7% prevalence in this very large sample size.  (+info)

(6/47) Limitation of fractional flow reserve in evaluating coronary artery myocardial bridge.

Symptomatic myocardial bridge is treated with medical therapy, but in refractory cases, percutaneous revascularization has been used. We describe two cases to highlight differences in coronary compression and flow pattern, which make the luminal narrowing associated with a myocardial bridge anatomically and physiologically different from the fixed stenosis of atherosclerotic epicardial disease. Due to these characteristics, evaluating the functional severity of a myocardial bridge using fractional flow reserve as a guide to revascularization may be of limited value. Furthermore, stenting, including drug-eluting stents, may not be the ideal revascularization strategy secondary to a higher risk of in-stent restenosis.  (+info)

(7/47) Frequency of myocardial bridges and dynamic compression of epicardial coronary arteries: a comparison between computed tomography and invasive coronary angiography.

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(8/47) Prevalence and characteristics of myocardial bridging in coronary angiogram--data from consecutive 5525 patients.

BACKGROUND: Large discrepancy of the incidence of myocardial bridging (MB) has been reported either among the postmortem studies or among the studies with coronary angiogram. This study was to investigate the prevalence of MB in large number of coronary angiograms and the angiographic characteristics of MB. METHODS: A total of 5525 consecutive patients who underwent first diagnostic coronary angiography from January 2003 to March 2006 in Zhongshan Hospital were enrolled in this study. MB was diagnosed when the angiographical "milking effect", defined as the systolic compression and complete or partly release of the compression in diastole, was seen in the epicardial coronary arteries. Angiography was routinely repeated after intracoronary injection of 200 microg nitroglycerin. The systolic compression and length of MB were compared before and after the administration of nitroglycerin and also before and after stent implantation in patients with significant stenosis in segment proximal to the MB. RESULTS: Among 5525 patients, MBs were found in a total of 888 patients angiographically with the prevalence of 16.1%. Atherosclerotic lesions were found more often in the segment proximal to the MB with 344/854 (40.3%) patients than in the segment distal to the MB with 47/854 (5.5%) (P < 0.01). The systolic compression ((43.3 +/- 13.7)% at baseline vs (54.2 +/- 14.0)% after nitroglycerine) and the average length ((20.9 +/- 7.5) mm at baseline vs (22.7 +/- 8.0) mm after nitroglycerine) of the MB segment were increased after intracoronary injection of nitroglycerin (both P < 0.01). Stent implantation was performed in 88 patients with significant stenosis in the segment proximal to the MB. The systolic compression and the length of the MB segment were increased after stenting compared with those before stenting (systolic compression, (49.4 +/- 14.6)% at baseline vs (57.3 +/- 12.3)% after stenting, and length of MB, (19.5 +/- 6.1) mm at baseline vs (21.8 +/- 6.3) mm after stenting, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: MB was a frequent finding in coronary angiogram with an incidence of 16.1%. Intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin and stent implantation in the segment proximal to the MB could enhance the systolic compression and the length of the MB angiographically.  (+info)