Pathological fracture of a lumbar vertebra caused by rheumatoid arthritis--a case report.
We describe a case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with collapse of the L3 lumbar vertebra for which surgery was performed. The pathogenesis of lumbar lesions affected by RA is discussed and the literature reviewed. (+info)
Cauda equina syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: a report of six cases.
Six patients with ankylosing spondylitis and features of a cauda equina syndrome are described. The myelographic findings are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of the disorder and its natural history. Present experience suggests that the cauda equina syndrome is a more common complication of ankylosing spondylitis than is usually thought. (+info)
Segmental spinal dysgenesis: neuroradiologic findings with clinical and embryologic correlation.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmental spinal dysgenesis (SSD) is a rare congenital abnormality in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop properly. Our goal was to investigate the neuroradiologic features of this condition in order to correlate our findings with the degree of residual spinal cord function, and to provide insight into the embryologic origin of this disorder. We also aimed to clarify the relationship between SSD and other entities, such as multiple vertebral segmentation defects, congenital vertebral displacement, and caudal regression syndrome (CRS). METHODS: The records of patients treated at our institutions for congenital spinal anomalies were reviewed, and 10 cases were found to satisfy the inclusion criteria for SSD. Plain radiographs were available for review in all cases. MR imaging was performed in eight patients, one of whom also underwent conventional myelography. Two other patients underwent only conventional myelography. RESULTS: Segmental vertebral anomalies involved the thoracolumbar, lumbar, or lumbosacral spine. The spinal cord at the level of the abnormality was thinned or even indiscernible, and a bulky, low-lying cord segment was present caudad to the focal abnormality in most cases. Closed spinal dysraphisms were associated in five cases, and partial sacrococcygeal agenesis in three. Renal anomalies were detected in four cases, and dextrocardia in one; all patients had a neurogenic bladder. CONCLUSION: SSD is an autonomous entity with characteristic clinical and neuroradiologic features; however, SSD and CRS probably represent two faces of a single spectrum of segmental malformations of the spine and spinal cord. The neuroradiologic picture depends on the severity of the malformation and on its segmental level along the longitudinal embryonic axis. The severity of the morphologic derangement correlates with residual spinal cord function and with severity of the clinical deficit. (+info)
Relationship of pain drawings to invasive tests assessing intervertebral disc pathology.
It has been found that the pain patterns in pain drawings are related to the presence of herniated disc identified by myelography. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the pattern of pain in the drawings or the type of pain indicated (aching, burning, numbness, pins and needles, stabbing) was related to the presence of symptomatic disc pathology identified by CT/discography. In a subgroup of patients who underwent myelography, the relationship of the drawings to myelographic findings was also investigated. Pain drawings were completed by 187 patients with low back and/or radicular pain who were undergoing CT/discography. The drawings were scored in two ways, first by the system described by Ransford and secondly by visual inspection. They were classified as being indicative, or not, of disc pathology. The CT/discograms were classified as disrupted, or not, and the pain responses were recorded upon injection of each disc, based on the similarity of the pain provoked to clinical symptoms. Among the 133 patients with discogenic pain confirmed by discography, 110 (82.7%) had pain drawings that were classified as indicative. Among the 45 patients without discogenic pain, 29 (64.4%) had pain drawings classified as non-indicative. Patients with discogenic pain used more symbols indicating burning pain and aching pain than did non-discogenic pain patients. Our results confirmed those reported earlier by Uden, who found a relationship between the pattern of pain in the drawings and myelographic findings. Pain drawings may be helpful in the diagnosis of symptomatic disc pathology. (+info)
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone associated with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
A 79-year-old woman suffering from urinary incontinence and unsteady gait was diagnosed as having idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) with hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The concentration of antidiuretic hormone was high while the plasma osmolality was low in the presence of concentrated urine during the episodes of hyponatremia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed enlargement of the third and lateral ventricles. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery, the symptoms of NPH and hyponatremia improved. It may be possibly explained that mechanical pressure on the hypothalamus from the third ventricle is responsible for hyponatremia. (+info)
Anterior interbody fusion in the treatment of the lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus.
One hundred and fourteen cases of lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus were studied retrospectively. I reviewed the clinical records and radiographs of patients treated with diskectomy and anterior interbody fusion. I followed the patients from 2 years up to 15 years, for an average of 2.9 years. The results were calculated statistically by Fisher exact test and Chi-square test. Among 114 patients, 69 patients (60.5%) were male and 45 patients (39.5%) were female. The most common age group was in its twenties (28.1%), while the whole study group ranged from 19 to 65 years. The most commonly involved level was L4-5 (73 cases, 60.4%). In clinical results, 83.3% of cases were excellent or good. The rate of solid fusion was 87.8%. The most common type of fusing pattern was type 1. The satisfying clinical result had statistical correlation with the solid union of grafted bone and the fusion state of maintained intervertebral disk height, respectively, by Fisher exact test (p < 0.001). The affecting factors in clinical results were the solid fusion and fusion with the state of maintenance of intervertebral disk height (fusing pattern type I and II). I concluded that anterior diskectomy and interbody fusion is a recommendable method of treatment for lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus. (+info)
Cauda equina compression due to a laminar hook: A late complication of posterior instrumentation in scoliosis surgery.
Whilst neurologic injury following correction of scoliosis with CD-instrumentation is generally known to be an early complication, any late occurrence of cauda compression secondary to employment of a laminar hook-rod construct is exceptional. We report on such a rare case of late occurrence of cauda equina syndrome, when a laminar hook at level L2 became symptomatic causing compression of the cauda equina almost a decade after spine surgery. This case demonstrates that one should not only be aware of a potential neural injury at intraoperative placement of laminar hooks, but also one is reminded that a laminar hook poses the threat of late neurologic injury years after successful osseous spinal fusion. The surgeon treating patients with scoliosis must be aware of the possible complication described in our patient in addition to those that have already been well documented. (+info)
Migrated disc in the lumbar spinal canal--case report.
A 49-year-old man who had complained of back pain for 20 years presented with numbness and pain in his left leg persisting for 6 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a peripherally enhanced intraspinal mass at the L-3 level. The mass was completely removed. The operative and histological findings revealed degenerated disc fragments surrounded by granulation tissue. His symptoms were completely relieved. Migrated disc should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with a long history of back pain and an intraspinal mass. (+info)