Treatment of murine fusariosis with SCH 56592.
Doses of 10 to 100 mg of the azole antifungal agent SCH 5692/kg of body weight/day were studied in immunocompetent mice as therapy for systemic infection by Fusarium solani. Treatment was begun 1 h after intravenous infection and continued daily for 4 or 13 doses. Prolongation of survival and organ clearance were dependent on both the dose and the duration of SCH 56592 therapy, with the best results seen at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The results at the highest doses of SCH 56592 used (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) were comparable to those obtained with amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day. SCH 56592 has potential for therapy of systemic infections caused by F. solani. (+info)
In-vitro activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B against filamentous fungi.
The in-vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole were compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin B. MICs for 110 isolates belonging to 11 species of filamentous fungi were determined by a broth microdilution adaptation of the method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) of the three antifungal agents were also determined. The MIC ranges of the three compounds were comparable for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladophialophora bantiana and Exophiala dermatitidis. Voriconazole and itraconazole were more active than amphotericin B against Fonsecaea pedrosoi, but the two azole agents were less active against Sporothrix schenckii. Voriconazole was more active than itraconazole or amphotericin B against Scedosporium apiospermum, but less active than the other two agents against two mucoraceous moulds, Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus arrhizus. Voriconazole and amphotericin B were more active than itraconazole against Fusarium solani. With the exception of S. apiospermum, all the moulds tested had MLC50 values of < or =2 mg/L and MLC90 values of < or =4 mg/L against amphotericin B. Voriconazole and itraconazole showed fungicidal effects against five of the 1 1 moulds tested (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, C. bantiana, E. dermatitidis and F. pedrosoi) with MLC90 values of < or =2 mg/L. In addition, voriconazole was fungicidal for Phialophora parasitica. Our results suggest that voriconazole could be effective against a wide range of mould infections in humans. (+info)
In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating.
Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells. (+info)
Itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis for fungal infections in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial. GIMEMA Infection Program. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for preventing fungal infections, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial was conducted: 405 neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to receive either itraconazole, 2.5 mg/kg every 12 hours (201 patients), or placebo (204 patients). Proven and suspected deep fungal infection occurred in 24% of itraconazole recipients and in 33% of placebo recipients, a difference of 9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6% to 22.5%; P = .035). Fungemia due to Candida species was documented in 0.5% of itraconazole recipients and in 4% of placebo recipients, a difference of 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 0.5% to 6%; P = .01). Deaths due to candidemia occurred in none of the itraconazole recipients compared with 4 placebo recipients, a difference of 2 percentage points (95% CI, 0.05% to 4%; P = .06). Aspergillus infection was documented in four itraconazole recipients (one death) and one placebo recipient (one death). Side effects causing drug interruption occurred in 18% of itraconazole recipients and 13% of placebo recipients. Itraconazole oral solution was well-tolerated and effectively prevented proven and suspected deep fungal infection as well as systemic infection and death due to Candida species. (+info)
Randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole prophylaxis for neutropenic cancer patients: benefit based on purpose and intensity of cytotoxic therapy. The Canadian Fluconazole Prophylaxis Study Group.
A randomized, double-blind trial comparing oral fluconazole (400 mg daily) with placebo as prophylaxis for adult patients receiving intensive cytotoxic therapy for acute leukemia or autologous bone marrow transplantation was conducted in 14 Canadian university-affiliated hospitals. Although fluconazole prophylaxis did not obviate the need for parenteral antifungal therapy compared with placebo (81 [57%] of 141 vs. 67 [50%] of 133, respectively), its use resulted in fewer superficial fungal infections (10 [7%] of 141 vs. 23 [18%] of 131, respectively; P = .02) and fewer definite and probable invasive fungal infections (9 vs. 32, respectively; P = .0001). Fluconazole recipients had fewer deaths attributable to definite invasive fungal infection (1 of 15 vs. 6 of 15, respectively; P = .04) and achieved more frequent success without fungal colonization (52 [37%] of 141 vs. 27 [20%] of 133, respectively; P = .004; relative risk reduction, 85%) than did placebo recipients. Patients benefiting the most from fluconazole prophylaxis included those with acute myeloid leukemia who were undergoing induction therapy with cytarabine plus anthracycline-based regimens and those receiving marrow autografts not supported with hematopoietic growth factors. Fluconazole prophylaxis reduces the incidence of superficial fungal infection and invasive fungal infection and fungal infection-related mortality among patients who are receiving intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy for remission induction. (+info)
Phycomycotic gastritis in buffalo calves (Bubalis bubalis).
Mycotic gastritis, primarily caused by Rhizopus sp. was seen in six buffalo calves (7-13 days old) at postmortem examination. The predominant lesions were numerous raised ulcers in which were hyphae of Rhizopus. In three calves, Candida organisms were also present superficially in the ulcers. Other changes in the mucosa were severe congestion, haemorrhage, thrombosis, necrosis, and infiltration by lymphocytes and neutrophils. Both Rhizopus and Candida were highly pathogenic to rabbits when inoculated intravenously. The disease could not be reproduced experimentally by feeding of Rhizopus orally to rabbits and calves. (+info)
Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group.
BACKGROUND: In patients with persistent fever and neutropenia, amphotericin B is administered empirically for the early treatment and prevention of clinically occult invasive fungal infections. However, breakthrough fungal infections can develop despite treatment, and amphotericin B has substantial toxicity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing liposomal amphotericin B with conventional amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy. RESULTS: The mean duration of therapy was 10.8 days for liposomal amphotericin B (343 patients) and 10.3 days for conventional amphotericin B (344 patients). The composite rates of successful treatment were similar (50 percent for liposomal amphotericin B and 49 percent for conventional amphotericin B) and were independent of the use of antifungal prophylaxis or colony-stimulating factors. The outcomes were similar with liposomal amphotericin B and conventional amphotericin B with respect to survival (93 percent and 90 percent, respectively), resolution of fever (58 percent and 58 percent), and discontinuation of the study drug because of toxic effects or lack of efficacy (14 percent and 19 percent). There were fewer proved breakthrough fungal infections among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (11 patients [3.2 percent]) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (27 patients [7.8 percent], P=0.009). With the liposomal preparation significantly fewer patients had infusion-related fever (17 percent vs. 44 percent), chills or rigors (18 percent vs. 54 percent), and other reactions, including hypotension, hypertension, and hypoxia. Nephrotoxic effects (defined by a serum creatinine level two times the upper limit of normal) were significantly less frequent among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (19 percent) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (34 percent, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Liposomal amphotericin B is as effective as conventional amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with fever and neutropenia, and it is associated with fewer breakthrough fungal infections, less infusion-related toxicity, and less nephrotoxicity. (+info)
Detection of cell wall mannoprotein Mp1p in culture supernatants of Penicillium marneffei and in sera of penicilliosis patients.
Mannoproteins are important and abundant structural components of fungal cell walls. The MP1 gene encodes a cell wall mannoprotein of the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei. In the present study, we show that Mp1p is secreted into the cell culture supernatant at a level that can be detected by Western blotting. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed with antibodies against Mp1p was capable of detecting this protein from the cell culture supernatant of P. marneffei at 10(4) cells/ml. The anti-Mp1p antibody is specific since it fails to react with any protein-form lysates of Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, or Cryptococcus neoformans by Western blotting. In addition, this Mp1p antigen-based ELISA is also specific for P. marneffei since the cell culture supernatants of the other three fungi gave negative results. Finally, a clinical evaluation of sera from penicilliosis patients indicates that 17 of 26 (65%) patients are Mp1p antigen test positive. Furthermore, a Mp1p antibody test was performed with these serum specimens. The combined antibody and antigen tests for P. marneffei carry a sensitive of 88% (23 of 26), with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The specificities of the tests are high since none of the 85 control sera was positive by either test. (+info)