The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: a molecular review of the fungal dimension.
Mycorrhizal associations vary widely in structure and function, but the most common interaction is the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. This interaction is formed between the roots of over 80% of all terrestrial plant species and Zygomycete fungi from the Order Glomales. These fungi are termed AM fungi and are obligate symbionts which form endomycorrhizal symbioses. This symbiosis confers benefits directly to the host plant's growth and development through the acquisition of P and other mineral nutrients from the soil by the fungus. In addition, they may also enhance the plant's resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. These beneficial effects of the AM symbiosis occur as a result of a complex molecular dialogue between the two symbiotic partners. Identifying the molecules involved in the dialogue is a prerequisite for a greater understanding of the symbiosis. Ongoing research attempts to understand the underlying dialogue and concomitant molecular changes occurring in the plant and the fungus during the establishment of a functioning AM symbiosis. This paper focuses on the molecular approaches being used to study AM fungal genes being expressed in the symbiotic and asymbiotic stages of its lifecycle. In addition, the importance of studying these fungi, in relation to understanding plant processes, is discussed briefly. (+info)
Legume genomes and discoveries in symbiosis research.
A report on the First International Conference on Legume Genomics and Genetics: Translation to Crop Improvement, Minneapolis-St. Paul, USA, 2-6 June 2002. (+info)
The indolic compound hypaphorine produced by ectomycorrhizal fungus interferes with auxin action and evokes early responses in nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana.
Signals leading to mycorrhizal differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the sensitivity of the root system from plant model Arabidopsis thaliana to hypaphorine, the major indolic compound isolated from the basidiomycetous fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. This fungi establishes ectomycorrhizas with Eucalyptus globulus. Hypaphorine controls root hair elongation and counteracts the activity of indole-3-acetic acid on root elongation on A. thaliana, as previously reported for the host plant. In addition, we show that hypaphorine counteracts the rapid upregulation by indole-3-acetic acid and 1-naphthalenic-acetic acid of the primary auxin-responsive gene IAA1 and induces a rapid, transient membrane depolarization in root hairs and suspension cells, due to the modulation of anion and K+ currents. These early responses indicate that components necessary for symbiosis-related differentiation events are present in the nonhost plant A. thaliana and provide tools for the dissection of the hypaphorine-auxin interaction. (+info)
A phosphate transporter from Medicago truncatula involved in the acquisition of phosphate released by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
Many plants have the capacity to obtain phosphate via a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In AM associations, the fungi release phosphate from differentiated hyphae called arbuscules, that develop within the cortical cells, and the plant transports the phosphate across a symbiotic membrane, called the periarbuscular membrane, into the cortical cell. In Medicago truncatula, a model legume used widely for studies of root symbioses, it is apparent that the phosphate transporters known to operate at the root-soil interface do not participate in symbiotic phosphate transport. EST database searches with short sequence motifs shared by known phosphate transporters enabled the identification of a novel phosphate transporter from M. truncatula, MtPT4. MtPT4 is significantly different from the plant root phosphate transporters cloned to date. Complementation of yeast phosphate transport mutants indicated that MtPT4 functions as a phosphate transporter, and estimates of the K(m) suggest a relatively low affinity for phosphate. MtPT4 is expressed only in mycorrhizal roots, and the MtPT4 promoter directs expression exclusively in cells containing arbuscules. MtPT4 is located in the membrane fraction of mycorrhizal roots, and immunolocalization revealed that MtPT4 colocalizes with the arbuscules, consistent with a location on the periarbuscular membrane. The transport properties and spatial expression patterns of MtPT4 are consistent with a role in the acquisition of phosphate released by the fungus in the AM symbiosis. (+info)
Genetic and cytogenetic mapping of DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 genes of Medicago truncatula involved in Nod factor transduction, nodulation, and mycorrhization.
The DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 genes of Medicago truncatula, which are required for both nodulation and mycorrhization, control early steps of Nod factor signal transduction. Here, we have used diverse approaches to pave the way for the map-based cloning of these genes. Molecular amplification fragment length polymorphism markers linked to the three genes were identified by bulked segregant analysis. Integration of these markers into the general genetic map of M. truncatula revealed that DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 are located on linkage groups 2, 5, and 8, respectively. Cytogenetic studies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on mitotic and pachytene chromosomes confirmed the location of DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 on chromosomes 2, 5, and 8. FISH-pachytene studies revealed that the three genes are in euchromatic regions of the genome, with a ratio of genetic to cytogenetic distances between 0.8 and 1.6 cM per microm in the DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 regions. Through grafting experiments, we showed that the genetic control of the dmi1, dmi2, and dmi3 nodulation phenotypes is determined at the root level. This means that mutants can be transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes to accelerate the complementation step of map-based cloning projects for DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3. (+info)
Phosphorus effects on metabolic processes in monoxenic arbuscular mycorrhiza cultures.
The influence of external phosphorus (P) on carbon (C) allocation and metabolism as well as processes related to P metabolism was studied in monoxenic arbuscular mycorrhiza cultures of carrot (Daucus carota). Fungal hyphae of Glomus intraradices proliferated from the solid minimal medium containing the colonized roots into C-free liquid minimal medium with different P treatments. The fungus formed around three times higher biomass in P-free liquid medium than in medium with 2.5 mM inorganic P (high-P). Mycelium in the second experiment was harvested at an earlier growth stage to study metabolic processes when the mycelium was actively growing. P treatment influenced the root P content and [(13)C]glucose administered to the roots 7 d before harvest gave a negative correlation between root P content and (13)C enrichment in arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal storage lipids in the extraradical hyphae. Eighteen percent of the enriched (13)C in extraradical hyphae was recovered in the fatty acid 16:1omega5 from neutral lipids. Polyphosphate accumulated in hyphae even in P-free medium. No influence of P treatment on fungal acid phosphatase activity was observed, whereas the proportion of alkaline-phosphatase-active hyphae was highest in high-P medium. We demonstrated the presence of a motile tubular vacuolar system in G. intraradices. This system was rarely seen in hyphae subjected to the highest P treatment. We concluded that the direct responses of the extraradical hyphae to the P concentration in the medium are limited. The effects found in hyphae seemed instead to be related to increased availability of P to the host root. (+info)
Induction of jasmonate biosynthesis in arbuscular mycorrhizal barley roots.
Colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Salome) roots by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, leads to elevated levels of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and its amino acid conjugate JA-isoleucine, whereas the level of the JA precursor, oxophytodienoic acid, remains constant. The rise in jasmonates is accompanied by the expression of genes coding for an enzyme of JA biosynthesis (allene oxide synthase) and of a jasmonate-induced protein (JIP23). In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that expression of these genes occurred cell specifically within arbuscule-containing root cortex cells. The concomitant gene expression indicates that jasmonates are generated and act within arbuscule-containing cells. By use of a near-synchronous mycorrhization, analysis of temporal expression patterns showed the occurrence of transcript accumulation 4 to 6 d after the appearance of the first arbuscules. This suggests that the endogenous rise in jasmonates might be related to the fully established symbiosis rather than to the recognition of interacting partners or to the onset of interaction. Because the plant supplies the fungus with carbohydrates, a model is proposed in which the induction of JA biosynthesis in colonized roots is linked to the stronger sink function of mycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. (+info)
Exploring root symbiotic programs in the model legume Medicago truncatula using EST analysis.
We report on a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing and analysis program aimed at characterizing the sets of genes expressed in roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula during interactions with either of two microsymbionts, the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti or the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. We have designed specific tools for in silico analysis of EST data, in relation to chimeric cDNA detection, EST clustering, encoded protein prediction, and detection of differential expression. Our 21 473 5'- and 3'-ESTs could be grouped into 6359 EST clusters, corresponding to distinct virtual genes, along with 52 498 other M.truncatula ESTs available in the dbEST (NCBI) database that were recruited in the process. These clusters were manually annotated, using a specifically developed annotation interface. Analysis of EST cluster distribution in various M.truncatula cDNA libraries, supported by a refined R test to evaluate statistical significance and by 'electronic northern' representation, enabled us to identify a large number of novel genes predicted to be up- or down-regulated during either symbiotic root interaction. These in silico analyses provide a first global view of the genetic programs for root symbioses in M.truncatula. A searchable database has been built and can be accessed through a public interface. (+info)