(1/95) Reduced pyrazinamidase activity and the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide.
Pyrazinamide (PZA), an analog of nicotinamide, is a prodrug that requires conversion to the bactericidal compound pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity of nicotinamidase to show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations leading to a loss of PZase activity cause PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. M. kansasii is naturally resistant to PZA and has reduced PZase activity along with an apparently detectable nicotinamidase activity. The role of the reduction in PZase activity in the natural PZA resistance of M. kansasii is unknown. The MICs of PZA and POA for M. kansasii were determined to be 500 and 125 micrograms/ml, respectively. Using [14C]PZA and [14C]nicotinamide, we found that M. kansasii had about 5-fold-less PZase activity and about 25-fold-less nicotinamidase activity than M. tuberculosis. The M. kansasii pncA gene was cloned on a 1.8-kb BamHI DNA fragment, using M. avium pncA probe. Sequence analysis showed that the M. kansasii pncA gene encoded a protein with homology to its counterparts from M. tuberculosis (69.9%), M. avium (65.6%), and Escherichia coli (28.5%). Transformation of naturally PZA-resistant M. bovis BCG with M. kansasii pncA conferred partial PZA susceptibility. Transformation of M. kansasii with M. avium pncA caused functional expression of PZase and high-level susceptibility to PZA, indicating that the natural PZA resistance in M. kansasii results from a reduced PZase activity. Like M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii accumulated POA in the cells at an acidic pH; however, due to its highly active POA efflux pump, the naturally PZA-resistant species M. smegmatis did not. These findings suggest the existence of a weak POA efflux mechanism in M. kansasii. (+info)
(2/95) Identification of Mycobacterium kansasii by using a DNA probe (AccuProbe) and molecular techniques.
The newly formulated Mycobacterium kansasii AccuProbe was evaluated, and the results obtained with the new version were compared to the results obtained with the old version of this test by using 116 M. kansasii strains, 1 Mycobacterium gastri strain, and 19 strains of several mycobacterial species. The sensitivity of this new formulation was 97.4% and the specificity was 100%. Still, three M. kansasii strains were missed by this probe. To evaluate the variability within the species, genetic analyses of the hsp65 gene, the spacer sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, and the 16S rRNA gene of several M. kansasii AccuProbe-positive strains as well as all AccuProbe-negative strains were performed. Genetic analyses of the one M. gastri strain from the comparative assay and of two further M. gastri strains were included because of the identity of the 16S rRNA gene in M. gastri to that in M. kansasii. The data confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of M. kansasii. Furthermore, a subspecies with an unpublished hsp65 restriction pattern and spacer sequence was described. The genetic data indicate that all M. kansasii strains missed by the AccuProbe test belong to one subspecies, the newly described subspecies VI, as determined by the hsp65 restriction pattern and the spacer sequence. Since the M. kansasii strains that are missed are rare and all M. gastri strains are correctly negative, the new formulated AccuProbe provides a useful tool for the identification of M. kansasii. (+info)
(3/95) Activation of human neutrophils by mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids.
The interaction between mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and phagocytes was studied. Human neutrophils were allowed to interact with each of four purified mycobacterial PGLs and the neutrophil production of reactive oxygen metabolites was followed kinetically by luminol-/isoluminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The PGLs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively, were shown to stimulate the production of oxygen metabolites, while PGLs from Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, respectively, were unable to induce an oxidative response. Periodate treatment of the M. tuberculosis PGL decreased the production of oxygen radicals, showing the importance of the PGL carbohydrate moiety for the interaction. The activation, however, could not be inhibited by rhamnose or fucose, indicating a complex interaction which probably involves more than one saccharide unit. This is in line with the fact that the activating PGLs from M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii contain tri- and tetrasaccharides, respectively, while the nonactivating PGLs from M. marinum and M. bovis BCG each contain a monosaccharide. The complement receptor 3 (CR3) has earlier been shown to be of importance for the phagocyte binding of mycobacteria, but did not appear to be involved in the activation of neutrophils by PGLs. The subcellular localization of the reactive oxygen metabolites formed was related to the way in which the glycolipids were presented to the cells. (+info)
(4/95) Mycobacterium kansasii septic arthritis: French retrospective study of 5 years and review.
Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium kansasii is rare; only 40 cases have been published. A French national inquiry revealed the occurrence of 10 new cases between 1992 and 1997 (8 men and 2 women: mean age, 37 years; range, 25-54 years). Seven had an underlying condition: AIDS (n=4), chronic skin psoriasis and AIDS (n=2), or a renal transplant (n=1). Trauma to the joint, use of intra-articular corticosteroid(s) 1 month to 2 years after the event, and chronic skin psoriasis were risk factors. The mean interval between appearance of the first symptoms of arthritis and the diagnosis was 5 months. Monarthritis was localized to the knee (n=4), wrist (n=3), finger (n=1), elbow (n=1), or ankle (n=1). The main diagnostic procedure was culture of a synovial biopsy specimen. In all cases, debridement was associated with antimycobacterial treatment. Three patients died of AIDS during treatment, and another is still undergoing treatment; the other 6 patients were cured. M. kansasii infection should be considered in all cases of indolent arthritis with any of the following risk factors: local trauma, local or systemic corticosteroid therapy, chronic skin psoriasis, and immunodepression, especially that due to human immunodeficiency virus infection. (+info)
(5/95) Aminoglycoside resistance in Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare, and Mycobacterium fortuitum: are aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes responsible?
Aminoglycoside acetyltransferase was detected in Mycobacterium kansasii and M. fortuitum but not in M. avium-M. intracellulare when they were screened by a radioassay. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase and nucleotidyltransferase activities were absent from all three species tested. Acetyltransferases from both M. kansasii and M. fortuitum displayed relatively high K(m)s, all at the millimolar level, for substrates including tobramycin, neomycin, and kanamycin A. The K(m) of each substrate was well above the corresponding maximum achievable level in serum. The low affinities of these enzymes for their substrates suggested that drug modification in vivo was very unlikely. Among the various substrates tested, no apparent positive correlation was found between substrate affinity and resistance level. The presence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in these mycobacterial species was therefore not shown to confer resistance to aminoglycosides. (+info)
(6/95) Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains evade apoptosis of infected alveolar macrophages.
Human alveolar macrophages (AMphi) undergo apoptosis following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. Apoptosis of cells infected with intracellular pathogens may benefit the host by eliminating a supportive environment for bacterial growth. The present study compared AMphi apoptosis following infection by M. tuberculosis complex strains of differing virulence and by Mycobacterium kansasii. Avirulent or attenuated bacilli (M. tuberculosis H37Ra, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and M. kansasii) induced significantly more AMphi apoptosis than virulent strains (M. tuberculosis H37Rv, Erdman, M. tuberculosis clinical isolate BMC 96.1, and M. bovis wild type). Increased apoptosis was not due to greater intracellular bacterial replication because virulent strains grew more rapidly in AMphi than attenuated strains despite causing less apoptosis. These findings suggest the existence of mycobacterial virulence determinants that modulate the apoptotic response of AMphi to intracellular infection and support the hypothesis that macrophage apoptosis contributes to innate host defense in tuberculosis. (+info)
(7/95) Assessment of morphology for rapid presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis often exhibits serpentine cording when grown in liquid medium, whereas Mycobacterium kansasii can be larger and cross-barred. We assessed the use of these morphologic characteristics as a cost-effective method for rapid presumptive identification of isolates from BACTEC bottles. Without specific training, using the Kinyoun acid-fast stain, definitive cording was found in 237 of 373 specimens positive for M. tuberculosis (64%) and cross-barring was recognized within 63 of 76 (83%) of the specimens positive for M. kansasii, giving sensitivities specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 63.5, 96, 92, and 79%, respectively, for M. tuberculosis and 83, 95, 59, and 98%, respectively, for M. kansasii. With training and experience, these results improved to 74.5, 98, 96, and 84% and 93, 98, 79, and 98%, respectively. The major improvements were in distinguishing the pseudocording, or loose aggregation of Mycobacterium avium complex from M. tuberculosis and the long beaded forms of Mycobacterium gordonae from M. kansasii. Mycobacterium asiaticum and Mycobacterium szulgai, which rarely occur, are genetically related to M. kansasii and morphologically difficult to distinguish. In defined circumstances, serpentine cording and cross-barring can be used for rapid presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii, respectively, and as guides for initial probe selection to reduce costs. (+info)
(8/95) Evaluation of the LiPA MYCOBACTERIA assay for identification of mycobacterial species from BACTEC 12B bottles.
The LiPA MYCOBACTERIA (Innogenetics NV, Ghent, Belgium) assay was used to identify mycobacterial isolates using culture fluid from positive BACTEC 12B bottles. The LiPA method involves reverse hybridization of a biotinylated mycobacterial PCR fragment, a 16 to 23S rRNA spacer region, to oligonucleotide probes arranged in lines on a membrane strip, with detection via biotin-streptavidin coupling by a colorimetric system. This system identifies Mycobacterium species and differentiates M. tuberculosis complex, M. avium-M. intracellulare complex, and the following mycobacterial species: M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, M. chelonae group, M. gordonae, M. xenopi, and M. scrofulaceum. The mycobacteria were identified in the laboratory by a series of tests, including the Roche AMPLICOR Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) test, the Gen-Probe ACCUPROBE, and a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene. The LiPA MYCOBACTERIA assay detected 60 mycobacterium isolates from 59 patients. There was complete agreement between LiPA and the laboratory identification tests for 26 M. tuberculosis complex, 9 M. avium, 3 M. intracellulare complex, 3 M. kansasii, 4 M. gordonae, and 5 M. chelonae group (all were M. abscessus) isolates. Three patient samples were LiPA positive for M. avium-M. intracellulare complex, and all were identified as M. intracellulare by the PCR-RFLP analysis. Seven additional mycobacterial species were LiPA positive for Mycobacterium spp. (six were M. fortuitum, and one was M. szulgai). The LiPA MYCOBACTERIA assay was easy to perform, and the interpretation of the positive bands was clear-cut. Following PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis, the LiPA assay was completed within 3 h. (+info)