Lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in children: presentation and response to therapy.
The most common manifestation of infection due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in children is cervical lymphadenitis in an otherwise healthy patient. We identified and reviewed 19 cases of proven or presumptive lymphadenitis due to NTM seen at our hospital over the course of 13 months. Nine patients underwent initial surgical excision of involved lymph nodes. Ten children did not have involved lymph nodes excised initially and were treated with macrolide-containing antibiotic regimens. Of these patients, five required subsequent surgical excision and five were cured with combination chemotherapy. Six patients underwent radiographic imaging of the head and neck that revealed asymmetrical adenopathy with ring-enhancing masses but minimal inflammatory stranding of the subcutaneous fat, a finding that may distinguish adenitis caused by NTM from staphylococcal and streptococcal adenitis. Our data suggest that if surgical excision is not considered feasible, antimicrobial therapy for adenitis due to NTM may be beneficial for some patients. (+info)
Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood--a clinicopathological study of 17 cases.
AIMS: To assess the clinical and pathological features of atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood to define the salient clinical and histological features. METHODS: 17 cases were included on the basis of positive culture or demonstration of bacilli of appropriate morphology and staining characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 4.86 years. All children were systemically well, with clear chest x rays. Unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was the commonest mode of presentation. Differential Mantoux testing played no part in diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis improved with awareness. Treatment varied with surgeons opting for excision and paediatricians adding six months antituberculous chemotherapy. Acid- and alcohol-fast bacilli were identified in nine cases. Bacterial cultures were conducted in 16 cases and were positive for atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria in 14, the main organism being M avium-intracellulare complex (11 cases). Histologically, 12 cases had bright eosinophilic serpiginous necrosis with nuclear debris scattered throughout the necrotic foci. Langhans type giant cells featured in the majority of cases but infiltration by plasma cells and neutrophils was not consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis of childhood represents a rare but significant disease with characteristic clinical and histological features. (+info)
Multisite reproducibility of results obtained by the broth microdilution method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium fortuitum.
A multicenter study was conducted to assess the interlaboratory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of the more common rapidly growing pathogenic mycobacteria. Ten isolates (four Mycobacterium fortuitum group, three Mycobacterium abscessus, and three Mycobacterium chelonae isolates) were tested against amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, imipenem, sulfamethoxazole, and tobramycin (M. chelonae only) in four laboratories. At each site, isolates were tested three times on each of three separate days (nine testing events per isolate) with a common lot of microdilution trays. Agreement among MICs (i.e., mode +/- 1 twofold dilution) varied considerably for the different drug-isolate combinations and overall was best for cefoxitin (91.7 and 97.2% for one isolate each and 100% for all others), followed by doxycycline, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Agreement based on the interpretive category, using currently suggested breakpoints, also varied and overall was best for doxycycline (97.2% for one isolate and 100% for the rest), followed by ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin. Reproducibility among MICs and agreement by interpretive category was most variable for imipenem. Based on results reported from the individual sites, it appears that inexperience contributed significantly to the wide range of MICs of several drugs, especially clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole. New interpretive guidelines are presented for the testing of M. fortuitum against clarithromycin; M. abscessus and M. chelonae against the aminoglycosides; and all three species against cefoxitin, doxycycline, and imipenem. (+info)
Emergence of a unique group of necrotizing mycobacterial diseases.
Although most diseases due to pathogenic mycobacteria are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several other mycobacterial diseases-caused by M. ulcerans (Buruli ulcer), M. marinum, and M. haemophilum-have begun to emerge. We review the emergence of diseases caused by these three pathogens in the United States and around the world in the last decade. We examine the pathophysiologic similarities of the diseases (all three cause necrotizing skin lesions) and common reservoirs of infection (stagnant or slow-flowing water). Examination of the histologic and pathogenic characteristics of these mycobacteria suggests differences in the modes of transmission and pathogenesis, though no singular mechanism for either characteristic has been definitively described for any of these mycobacteria. (+info)
Improved methods for immunoassay of mycothiol.
Improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods have been developed for the determination of femtomole amounts of mycothiol (MSH), the main low-molecular-weight thiol in mycobacteria. The immunoassays utilize an affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibody that is highly specific for the pseudodisaccharide moiety of MSH. MSH was first biotinylated by the thiol-specific reagent 3-(N-maleimidopropionyl)biocytin. The MSH-biotin adduct was then captured with immobilized avidin and detected with anti-MSH antibody (biotin-capture ELISA) or was captured with immobilized anti-MSH antibody and detected with alkaline phosphatase-labelled avidin (MSH-capture ELISA). The MSH-capture ELISA was the most sensitive method, measuring as little as 0.3 fmol of MSH. Methods for biotinylating MSH directly from Mycobacterium spp. are described. The MSH-capture ELISA was tested for the detection of M. avium seeded in human urine or cerebrospinal fluid samples and for screening mutant M. smegmatis strains to detect MSH production. (+info)
Successful treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi infection in a natural killer cell-deficient patient with clarithromycin, rifabutin, and sparfloxacin.
Isolation of Mycobacterium xenopi from the respiratory tract may indicate pneumonia, often clinically indistinguishable from tuberculosis. Resistance to the classic antituberculous drugs renders the treatment of these infections problematic. We report on a case of cavernous pneumonia caused by M. xenopi in a 36-year-old male with natural killer cell deficiency but without severe immunodeficiency. He was successfully treated with a novel triple-drug combination comprising clarithromycin, sparfloxacin, and rifabutin. An impressive subsequent regression of pathological pulmonary changes was observed, and mycobacteria could no longer be detected. The therapeutic potential of clarithromycin and sparfloxacin in the treatment of M. xenopi infections is discussed. (+info)
Recurrent, disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection caused by the same genotypically defined strain in an immunocompromised patient.
An 81-year-old male with myasthenia gravis developed a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium marinum, which apparently resolved following local heat therapy. Five months later, the patient developed new skin lesions and pancytopenia. M. marinum was isolated from his bone marrow. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to determine if the skin and bone marrow isolates were clonally related. Digestion of the genomic DNA with the restriction enzymes SpeI and AseI yielded indistinguishable banding patterns. An epidemiologically unrelated control strain showed significant banding differences. The results suggest that the patient's recurrent, disseminated infection was due to recrudescence of his initial infection rather than reinfection by another strain. (+info)
Overexpression of Fas/CD95 and Fas-induced apoptosis in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.
The mechanisms of apoptosis have become better understood, in part with the discovery of Fas/CD95. We report the case of a patient characterized by a decreased CD4+ T cell count and an overexpression of Fas/CD95 resulting in apoptosis. A 54-year-old man presented with disseminated Mycobacterium xenopi infection. Analysis showed CD4+ T lymphopenia. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 were negative. We compared the patient with eight healthy controls and five HIV-infected patients in terms of the expression of Fas/CD95 and Fas-mediated apoptosis of peripheral T lymphocytes. The percent of CD95+ cells in lymphocytes was 98% for the patient, and the mean percent of CD95+ cells in lymphocytes +/- SD for HIV-infected patients and healthy controls was 75% +/- 16% and 36% +/- 26%, respectively. The patient had a high level of spontaneous apoptosis, and apoptotic cells were all identified as being CD4+ T cells. Monoclonal antibodies to CD95 dramatically increased apoptosis of CD4+ T cells exclusively. CD4+ T lymphopenia observed in our patient correlated with an overexpression of Fas together with spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptosis. (+info)