Micronucleus test using cultured new born rat astrocytes. (1/1459)

Micronuclei is induced in cytoplasm as a consequence of the formation of chromosomal fragments or remaining chromosomes during cell division by the cause of clastogens or spindle poisons, and is used as an indicator of genotoxicity screening tests. There are few short-term genotoxicity screening tests using brain cells. We attempted to establish a new in vitro micronucleus test (MN test) system by use of central nervous system cells. Primary cultured astrocytes were prepared from newborn male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In growth curve of astrocytes, doubling time was determined to be 31 h. In time study, the highest frequency of micronuclei was observed at 48 h, 72 h and 6 h-exposure-66 h-recovery by vincristine (VCR), mitomycin C (MMC) without metabolic activation system and cyclophosphamide (CPM) with metabolic activation system, respectively. Dose-response relationships between micronucleus frequency and concentrations of MMC, VCR and CPM were observed, respectively. It is suggested that the in vitro MN test using new born rat-astrocytes could be used as a screening test of environmental and occupational genotoxic chemicals in the central nervous system cells.  (+info)

Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa. (2/1459)

Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol. At various times after beginning the treatment regimen, rats were killed and the lymphocyte Hprt assay was performed on splenic lymphocytes isolated from the animals. The 6-thioguanine-resistant T lymphocyte mutant frequency increased with time during the period of thiotepa exposure and declined slightly thereafter. Significant dose-dependent increases in mutant frequency were found using concentrations of thiotepa that eventually result in lymphoproliferative tumors. Hprt mRNA from mutant lymphocytes was reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by PCR and examined for mutations by DNA sequencing. This analysis indicated that the major type of point mutation was G:C-->T:A transversion and that 33% of the mutants contained simple or complex frameshifts. Also, a multiplex PCR performed on DNA from mutant clones that were expanded in vitro indicated that 34% of the clones had deletions in the Hprt gene. These results indicate that the induction of lymphocyte Hprt mutants is a sensitive biomarker for the carcinogenicity of thiotepa and that the types of mutations found in the lymphocyte Hprt gene reflect the kinds of DNA damage produced by thiotepa.  (+info)

Biological effects of naturally occurring and man-made fibres: in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in mammalian cells. (3/1459)

Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of tremolite, erionite and the man-made ceramic (RCF-1) fibre were studied using the human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells. Results from these fibres were compared with those of UICC Rhodesian chrysotile fibres. The A(L) cell mutation assay, based on the S1 gene marker located on human chromosome 11, the only human chromosome contained in the hybrid cell, has been shown to be more sensitive than conventional assays in detecting deletion mutations. Tremolite, erionite and RCF-1 fibres were significantly less cytotoxic to A(L) cells than chrysotile. Mutagenesis studies at the HPRT locus revealed no significant mutant yield with any of these fibres. In contrast, both erionite and tremolite induced dose-dependent S1- mutations in fibre-exposed cells, with the former inducing a significantly higher mutant yield than the latter fibre type. On the other hand, RCF-1 fibres were largely non-mutagenic. At equitoxic doses (cell survival at approximately 0.7), erionite was found to be the most potent mutagen among the three fibres tested and at a level comparable to that of chrysotile fibres. These results indicate that RCF-1 fibres are non-genotoxic under the conditions used in the studies and suggest that the high mesothelioma incidence previously observed in hamster may either be a result of selective sensitivity of hamster pleura to fibre-induced chronic irritation or as a result of prolonged fibre treatment. Furthermore, the relatively high mutagenic potential for erionite is consistent with its documented carcinogenicity.  (+info)

Cancer chemopreventive mechanisms of tea against heterocyclic amine mutagens from cooked meat. (4/1459)

Cooking meat and fish under normal conditions produces heterocyclic amine mutagens, several of which have been shown to induce colon tumors in experimental animals. In our search for natural dietary components that might protect against these mutagens, it was found that green tea and black tea inhibit the formation of heterocyclic amine-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat. Since ACF are considered to be putative preneoplastic lesions, we examined the inhibitory mechanisms of tea against the heterocyclic amines. In the initial studies using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, green tea and black tea inhibited according to the concentration of tea leaves during brewing and the time of brewing; a 2-3-min brew of 5% green tea (w/v) was sufficient for >90% antimutagenic activity. N-hydroxylated heterocyclic amines, which are direct-acting mutagens in Salmonella, were inhibited by complete tea beverage and by individual components of tea, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Inhibition did not involve enhanced mutagen degradation, and EGCG and other catechins complexed only weakly with the mutagens, suggesting electrophile scavenging as an alternative mechanism. Enzymes that contribute to the metabolic activation of heterocyclic amines, namely microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and N, O-acetyltransferase, were inhibited by tea in vitro. Studies in vivo established that tea also induces cytochromes P450 and Phase II enzymes in a manner consistent with the rapid metabolism and excretion of heterocyclic amines. Collectively, the results indicate that tea possesses anticarcinogenic activity in the colon, and this most likely involves multiple inhibitory mechanisms.  (+info)

Chromosomal aberrations in humans induced by urban air pollution: influence of DNA repair and polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and N-acetyltransferase 2. (5/1459)

We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a biomarker of genotoxic damage and dimethylsulfate-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in mononuclear WBCs, the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotype, and the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype as biomarkers of susceptibility. The bus drivers, who had previously been observed to have elevated levels of aromatic DNA adducts in their peripheral mononuclear cells, showed a significantly higher frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations as compared with the postal workers. In the bus drivers, unscheduled DNA synthesis correlated negatively with the number of cells with gaps, indicating a protective effect of DNA repair toward chromosome damage. Bus drivers with the GSTM1 null and slow acetylator NAT2 genotype had an increased frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations. NAT2 slow acetylators also showed elevated chromosomal aberration counts among the postal workers. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations.  (+info)

Occurrence of stereoisomers of 1-(2'-pyrrolidinethione-3'-yl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in fermented radish roots and their different mutagenic properties. (6/1459)

Stereoisomers of the tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivative, 1-(2-pyrrolidinethione)-3-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline- 3-carboxylic acid (PTCC), were formed from L-tryptophan with 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, and their mutagenic properties and contents in different types of the radish products were studied. The isomers were identified as (1S*, 3S*, 3R*)- and (1R*, 3S*, 3R*)-PTCCs; the former was found as the major compound but had no mutagenic activity, while the latter was mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 in the presence of a rat microsomal fraction. Both (1S*, 3S*, 3R*)- and (1R*, 3S*, 3R*)-PTCC were detected in a ratio of about 4:1 in a product fermented for 8 months, but only a trace was apparent in products manufactured within a few weeks.  (+info)

Heterocyclic aromatic amines induce DNA strand breaks and cell transformation. (7/1459)

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), formed during the cooking of foods, are known to induce tumours in rodent bioassays and may thus contribute to human cancer risk. We tested six HAAs in a morphological transformation assay and in three in vitro genotoxicity assays. The morphological transforming abilities of HAAs were tested, in the presence of rat-liver S9, in the C3H/M2 fibroblast cell line. Concentration levels of 50 microM 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 100 microM 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 50 microM 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 100 microM 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), 100 microM 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAalphaC) and 15 microM 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induced maximum transformation potencies of 5.5, 6.6, 6.3, 5.2, 7.3 and 9.2 transformed foci per 10(4) surviving cells, respectively. Bacterial mutagenic activity was determined in the presence of rat-liver S9 using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse-mutation assay employing strain YG1019. Mutagenic potencies of 3800 revertants (revs)/ng with 8-MeIQx, 2900 revs/ng with 4,8-DiMeIQx, 3480 revs/ng with IQ, 1.6 revs/ng with AalphaC, 2.9 revs/ng with MeAalphaC and 5 revs/ng with PhIP were observed. Clastogenic activity in vitro was analysed by the micronucleus assay in metabolically competent MCL-5 cells. Dose-dependent induction of micronuclei was observed for all HAAs tested with 1-5.4% of cells containing micronuclei at 10 ng/ml. Micronucleus induction was in the order 4,8-DiMeIQx > 8-MeIQx > IQ > MeAalphaC > PhIP > AalphaC. DNA strand-breaking activity in MCL-5 cells was measured by the alkaline single cell-gel (comet) assay. The lowest effect doses for significant increases (P < or = 0.0007, Mann-Whitney test) in comet tail length (microm) were 45.5 microg/ml (200 microM) for PhIP, 90.9 microg/ml (410-510 microM) for 4,8-DiMeIQx, IQ, MeAalphaC and AalphaC, and 454.5 microg/ml (2130 microM) for 8-MeIQx. It is not yet clear which of these assays most accurately reflects the genotoxic potential to humans of compounds of this class of environmental carcinogens.  (+info)

Antimutagenicity of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. (8/1459)

Antimutagenicity of the water extracts prepared from the storage roots of four varieties of sweetpotato with different flesh colors was investigated using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The extract from the whole roots of the purple-colored Ayamurasaki variety effectively decreased the reverse mutation induced not only by Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, IQ, B[a]P, and 4-NQO but also by dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of grilled beef. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the extracts from the normal Ayamurasaki and its anthocyanin-deficient mutant one suggested that the anthocyanin pigment in the flesh decreases the mutagenic activity of the mutagens as heterocyclic amines. Two anthocyanin pigments purified from purple-colored sweet-potato, 3-(6,6'-caffeylferulylsophoroside)-5-glucoside of cyanidin (YGM-3) and peonidin (YGM-6) effectively inhibited the reverse mutation induced by heterocyclic amines, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, and IQ in the presence of rat liver microsomal activation systems.  (+info)