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(1/146) Initial management of closed fracture-dislocations of the ankle.

BACKGROUND: Immediate management of closed fracture-dislocations of the ankle requires urgent reduction and immobilisation of the ankle prior to definitive surgery. METHODS: The management of 23 patients attending the accident and emergency department of a district general hospital with this type of injury were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Paramedic reduction was attempted in 1 of the 22 patients brought by ambulance. Triage categorisation was inappropriate in 14 patients. Unnecessary pre-reduction radiographs were obtained in 8 patients. Reduction was initially inadequate in 2 patients, and no post-reduction splintage was applied in a further 2 patients. Recording of skin and neurovascular status was inadequate in the majority of the patient's notes. CONCLUSIONS: The necessary urgent reduction and splintage is being delayed in some cases because of inadequate injury recognition, inappropriate triage categorisation and unnecessary radiographs.  (+info)

(2/146) Active or passive treatment for neck-shoulder pain in occupational health care? A randomized controlled trial.

AIMS: To compare the effectiveness of thoracic manipulations with instructions for physiotherapeutic exercises for the treatment of neck pain in occupational health care. METHODS: Seventy-five subjects aged 30-55 years from a random sample of 241 employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company were randomly allocated to treatment in the form of four thoracic manipulations (n = 43), or instructions for physiotherapeutic exercises (n = 32). The subjects reported neck-shoulder pain on a structured pain questionnaire using a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-10). Muscle tenderness and tender thoracic levels were evaluated by a blinded investigator (A.S.) at 6- and 12 month follow-ups. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found in self-reported worst pain by VAS at the 12 month follow-up in favour of the thoracic manipulation group. CONCLUSIONS: The natural course of the neck-shoulder pain in this study appears benign; pain was also reduced in the drop-out group. Both treatments were found effective at the 12 month follow-up. The effect of four manipulations was more favourable than the personal exercise program in treating the more intense phase of pain.  (+info)

(3/146) Scoliosis treatment using a combination of manipulative and rehabilitative therapy: a retrospective case series.

BACKGROUND: The combination of spinal manipulation and various physiotherapeutic procedures used to correct the curvatures associated with scoliosis have been largely unsuccessful. Typically, the goals of these procedures are often to relax, strengthen, or stretch musculotendinous and/or ligamentous structures. In this study, we investigate the possible benefits of combining spinal manipulation, positional traction, and neuromuscular reeducation in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: A total of 22 patient files were selected to participate in the protocol. Of these, 19 met the study criterion required for analysis of treatment benefits. Anteroposterior radiographs were taken of each subject prior to treatment intervention and 4-6 weeks following the intervention. A Cobb angle was drawn and analyzed on each radiograph, so pre and post comparisons could be made. RESULTS: After 4-6 weeks of treatment, the treatment group averaged a 17 degrees reduction in their Cobb angle measurements. None of the patients' Cobb angles increased. A total of 3 subjects were dismissed from the study for noncompliance relating to home care instructions, leaving 19 subjects to be evaluated post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of spinal manipulation and postural therapy appeared to significantly reduce the severity of the Cobb angle in all 19 subjects. These results warrant further testing of this protocol.  (+info)

(4/146) Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic exercises in the management of rheumatoid arthritis in adults.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to create guidelines for the use of therapeutic exercises and manual therapy in the management of adult patients (>18 years of age) with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis according to the 1987 American Rheumatism Association criteria. METHODS: Evidence from comparative controlled trials was identified and synthesized using The Cochrane Collaboration methods. An expert panel was formed by inviting professional stakeholder organizations to each nominate a representative. This panel developed a set of criteria for grading the strength of both the evidence and the recommendation. RESULTS: Six positive recommendations of clinical benefit were developed on therapeutic exercises. The efficacy of manual therapy interventions could not be determined for lack of evidence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The panel recommends the use of therapeutic exercises for rheumatoid arthritis. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of manual therapy in the management of this disease.  (+info)

(5/146) Comparison of manual therapy and exercise therapy in osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomized clinical trial.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a manual therapy program compared with an exercise therapy program in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. METHODS: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial of 109 hip OA patients was carried out in the outpatient clinic for physical therapy of a large hospital. The manual therapy program focused on specific manipulations and mobilization of the hip joint. The exercise therapy program focused on active exercises to improve muscle function and joint motion. The treatment period was 5 weeks (9 sessions). The primary outcome was general perceived improvement after treatment. Secondary outcomes included pain, hip function, walking speed, range of motion, and quality of life. RESULTS: Of 109 patients included in the study, 56 were allocated to manual therapy and 53 to exercise therapy. No major differences were found on baseline characteristics between groups. Success rates (primary outcome) after 5 weeks were 81% in the manual therapy group and 50% in the exercise group (odds ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.30, 2.60). Furthermore, patients in the manual therapy group had significantly better outcomes on pain, stiffness, hip function, and range of motion. Effects of manual therapy on the improvement of pain, hip function, and range of motion endured after 29 weeks. CONCLUSION: The effect of the manual therapy program on hip function is superior to the exercise therapy program in patients with OA of the hip.  (+info)

(6/146) Evaluation and treatment of posterior neck pain in family practice.

Neck pain is almost universal and is a common patient complaint. Although the differential diagnosis is extensive, most symptoms are from biomechanical sources, such as axial neck pain, whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), and radiculopathy. Most symptoms abate quickly with little intervention. There is relatively little high-quality treatment evidence available, and no consensus on management of axial neck pain or radiculopathy. A number of general pain management guidelines are applicable to neck pain, and specific guidelines are available on the management of WAD. The goal of diagnosis is to identify the anatomic pain generator(s). Patient history and examination are important in distinguishing potential causes and identifying red flags. Diagnostic imaging should be ordered only when necessary because of the high incidence of asymptomatic radiographic abnormalities. First-line drug treatments include acetaminophen, cyclo-oxygenase 2-specific inhibitors, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Short-term use of muscle relaxants may be considered. Opioids should be used if other treatments are ineffective and continued if improved function outweighs impairment. Adjuvant antidepressants and anticonvulsants should be considered in chronic or neuropathic pain and coincident depression. Epidural steroids should be considered only in radiculopathy. Physical modalities supported by evidence should be used. If symptoms have not resolved in 4 to 6 weeks, re-evaluation and additional workup should be considered.  (+info)

(7/146) Nonpharmacologic management of pain.

Pain is a complex phenomenon with various causes and issues associated with its occurrence. This complexity is especially true for those who have chronic pain. In light of the multifactorial nature of this problem, the treatment plan has to be individualized for each patient. The nonpharmacologic management of pain is the focus of this review article with an attempt to substantiate the individual components through the peer-reviewed medical literature. Strategies that have support in patients with chronic pain include the use of manipulation and mobilization, exercise, and psychological intervention; bed rest, bracing, and therapeutic modalities have not been validated in this patient population. The active use of heat modalities through a wearable wrap that allows patients to remain active during treatment has demonstrated efficacy in patients with acute pain and may be beneficial in patients with chronic pain, as well. The goal of treatment may not necessarily be to cure pain, but to manage it and restore functionality.  (+info)

(8/146) Mechanical stimulation of the plantar foot surface attenuates soleus muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading in rats.

Unloading-induced muscle atrophy occurs in the aging population, bed-ridden patients, and astronauts. This study was designed to determine whether dynamic foot stimulation (DFS) applied to the plantar surface of the rat foot can serve as a countermeasure to soleus muscle atrophy normally observed in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats. Forty-four mature (6 mo old), male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to ambulatory control, HU alone, HU with active DFS (i.e., plantar contact with active inflation), HU with passive DFS (i.e., plantar contact without active inflation), and HU while wearing a DFS boot with no plantar contact groups. Application of active DFS during HU significantly counteracted the atrophic response by preventing approximately 85% of the reduction in type I myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in the soleus while preventing approximately 57% of the reduction in type I myofiber CSA and 43% of the reduction in type IIA myofiber CSA of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. Wearing of a DFS boot without active inflation prevented myofiber atrophy in the soleus of HU animals in a fashion similar to that observed in HU animals that wore an actively inflated DFS boot. However, when a DFS boot without plantar surface contact was worn during HU, no significant protection from HU-induced myofiber atrophy was observed. These results illustrate that the application of mechanical foot stimulation to the plantar surface of the rat foot is an effective countermeasure to muscle atrophy induced by HU.  (+info)