Mutations in XPB and XPD helicases found in xeroderma pigmentosum patients impair the transcription function of TFIIH.
As part of TFIIH, XPB and XPD helicases have been shown to play a role in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Mutations in these subunits are associated with three genetic disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The strong heterogeneous clinical features observed in these patients cannot be explained by defects in NER alone. We decided to look at the transcriptional activity of TFIIH from cell lines of XP individuals. We set up an immunopurification procedure to isolate purified TFIIH from patient cell extracts. We demonstrated that mutations in two XP-B/CS patients decrease the transcriptional activity of the corresponding TFIIH by preventing promoter opening. The defect of XPB in transcription can be circumvented by artificial opening of the promoter. Western blot analysis and enzymatic assays indicate that XPD mutations affect the stoichiometric composition of TFIIH due to a weakness in the interaction between XPD-CAK complex and the core TFIIH, resulting in a partial reduction of transcription activity. This work, in addition to clarifying the role of the various TFIIH subunits, supports the current hypothesis that XP-B/D patients are more likely to suffer from transcription repair syndromes rather than DNA repair disorders alone. (+info)
RNA splicing: more clues from spinal muscular atrophy.
Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene, the product of which is part of a multi-component complex involved in the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. A recent study indicates that SMN may also play a role in pre-mRNA splicing. (+info)
Quantitative analysis of survival motor neuron copies: identification of subtle SMN1 mutations in patients with spinal muscular atrophy, genotype-phenotype correlation, and implications for genetic counseling.
Problems with diagnosis and genetic counseling occur for patients with autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) who do not show the most common mutation: homozygous absence of at least exon 7 of the telomeric survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). Here we present molecular genetic data for 42 independent nondeleted SMA patients. A nonradioactive quantitative PCR test showed one SMN1 copy in 19 patients (45%). By sequencing cloned reverse-transcription (RT) PCR products or genomic fragments of SMN1, we identified nine different mutations in 18 of the 19 patients, six described for the first time: three missense mutations (Y272C, T274I, S262I), three frameshift mutations in exons 2a, 2b, and 4 (124insT, 241-242ins4, 591delA), one nonsense mutation in exon 1 (Q15X), one Alu-mediated deletion from intron 4 to intron 6, and one donor splice site mutation in intron 7 (c.922+6T-->G). The most frequent mutation, Y272C, was found in 6 (33%) of 18 patients. Each intragenic mutation found in at least two patients occurred on the same haplotype background, indicating founder mutations. Genotype-phenotype correlation allowed inference of the effect of each mutation on the function of the SMN1 protein and the role of the SMN2 copy number in modulating the SMA phenotype. In 14 of 23 SMA patients with two SMN1 copies, at least one intact SMN1 copy was sequenced, which excludes a 5q-SMA and suggests the existence of further gene(s) responsible for approximately 4%-5% of phenotypes indistinguishable from SMA. We determined the validity of the test, and we discuss its practical implications and limitations. (+info)
SMN protein analysis in fibroblast, amniocyte and CVS cultures from spinal muscular atrophy patients and its relevance for diagnosis.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by the homozygous absence of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMNt) gene, due to deletion, gene conversion or point mutation. SMNt and its homologous centromeric copy (SMNc) encode the SMN protein, which is diffusely present in the cytoplasm and in dot-like structures, called gems, in the nucleus. We have studied the SMN protein in different cell cultures, including fibroblasts, amniocytes and CVS cells from SMA individuals and controls. By immunofluorescence analysis we found a marked reduction in the number of gems in fibroblasts, amniocytes and chorionic villus cells of all SMA patients and foetuses, independent of the type of the genetic defect. We also show that immunolocalisation of the SMN protein may be a useful tool for the characterisation of particular patients of uncertain molecular diagnosis. (+info)
A single nucleotide in the SMN gene regulates splicing and is responsible for spinal muscular atrophy.
SMN1 and SMN2 (survival motor neuron) encode identical proteins. A critical question is why only the homozygous loss of SMN1, and not SMN2, results in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Analysis of transcripts from SMN1/SMN2 hybrid genes and a new SMN1 mutation showed a direct relationship between presence of disease and exon 7 skipping. We have reported previously that the exon-skipped product SMNDelta7 is partially defective for self-association and SMN self-oligomerization correlated with clinical severity. To evaluate systematically which of the five nucleotides that differ between SMN1 and SMN2 effect alternative splicing of exon 7, a series of SMN minigenes was engineered and transfected into cultured cells, and their transcripts were characterized. Of these nucleotide differences, the exon 7 C-to-T transition at codon 280, a translationally silent variance, was necessary and sufficient to dictate exon 7 alternative splicing. Thus, the failure of SMN2 to fully compensate for SMN1 and protect from SMA is due to a nucleotide exchange (C/T) that attenuates activity of an exonic enhancer. These findings demonstrate the molecular genetic basis for the nature and pathogenesis of SMA and illustrate a novel disease mechanism. Because individuals with SMA retain the SMN2 allele, therapy targeted at preventing exon 7 skipping could modify clinical outcome. (+info)
A single nucleotide difference that alters splicing patterns distinguishes the SMA gene SMN1 from the copy gene SMN2.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a recessive disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord. It is caused by mutations in the telomeric survival motor neuron 1 ( SMN1 ) gene. Alterations within an almost identical copy gene, the centromeric survival motor neuron 2 ( SMN2 ) gene produce no known phenotypic effect. The exons of the two genes differ by just two nucleotides, neither of which alters the encoded amino acids. At the genomic level, only five nucleotides that differentiate the two genes from one another have been reported. The entire genomic sequence of the two genes has not been determined. Thus, differences which might explain why SMN1 is the SMA gene are not readily apparent. In this study, we have completely sequenced and compared genomic clones containing the SMN genes. The two genes show striking similarity, with the homology being unprecedented between two different yet functional genes. The only critical difference in an approximately 32 kb region between the two SMN genes is the C->T base change 6 bp inside exon 7. This alteration but not other variations in the SMN genes affects the splicing pattern of the genes. The majority of the transcript from the SMN1 locus is full length, whereas the majority of the transcript produced by the SMN2 locus lacks exon 7. We suggest that the exon 7 nucleotide change affects the activity of an exon splice enhancer. In SMA patients, the loss of SMN1 but the presence of SMN2 results in low levels of full-length SMN transcript and therefore low SMN protein levels which causes SMA. (+info)
Identification of survival motor neuron as a transcriptional activator-binding protein.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuro-muscular disease characterized by specific degeneration of spinal cord anterior horn cells and subsequent muscle atrophy. Survival motor neuron ( SMN ), located on chromosome 5q13, is the SMA-determining gene. In the nucleus, SMN is present in large foci called gems, the function of which is not yet known, while cytoplasmic SMN has been implicated in snRNP biogenesis. In SMA patients, SMN protein levels and the number of gems generally correlate with disease severity, suggesting a critical nuclear function for SMN. In a screen for proteins associated with the nuclear transcription activator 'E2' of papillomavirus, two independent SMN cDNAs were isolated. The E2 and SMN proteins were found to associate specifically in vitro and in vivo. Expression of SMN enhanced E2-dependent transcriptional activation, and patient-derived SMN missense mutations reduced E2 gene expression. Our results demonstrate that SMN interacts with a nuclear transcription factor and imply that SMN may serve a role in regulating gene expression. These observations suggest that SMA may in part result from abnormal gene expression and that E2 may influence viral gene expression through SMN interaction. (+info)
The linkage of Kennedy's neuron disease to ARA24, the first identified androgen receptor polyglutamine region-associated coactivator.
Although the linkage of polyglutamine (poly-Q) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) to Kennedy's disease (X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy) was a major step forward, the detailed molecular mechanism of how the change in poly-Q length contributes to the disease remains unclear. Here we report the identification of a nuclear G-protein, Ras-related nuclear protein/ARA24, as the first AR coactivator that can bind differentially with different lengths of poly-Q within AR. In the yeast and mammalian reciprocal interacting assays, our data suggested the interaction of AR N-terminal domain with ARA24 diminishes as the poly-Q length increases. The coactivation of ARA24 also diminishes with the poly-Q expansion within AR. Deletion of the acidic hexapeptide (DEDDDL) at the C terminus of ARA24 further enhances its AR coactivation. Together, our data suggest that poor interaction and weaker coactivation of ARA24 to the longer poly-Q AR in the X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophied AR could contribute to the weaker transactivation of AR. The consequence of poor interaction and weak coactivation may eventually lead to the partial androgen insensitivity during the development of Kennedy's disease. (+info)