The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy.
In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC. (+info)
Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors.
The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of the promoters of the maxiK channel alpha and beta subunits.
Large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (maxiK) channels are expressed in nerve, muscle, and other cell types and are important determinants of smooth muscle tone. To determine the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of maxiK channels, we characterized the promoter regions of the pore forming (alpha) and regulatory (beta) subunits of the human channel complex. Maximum promoter activity (up to 12.3-fold over control) occurred between nucleotides -567 and -220 for the alpha subunit (hSlo) gene. The minimal promoter is GC-rich with 5 Sp-1 binding sites and several TCC repeats. Other transcription factor-binding motifs, including c/EBP, NF-kB, PU.1, PEA-3, Myo-D, and E2A, were observed in the 5'-flanking sequence. Additionally, a CCTCCC sequence, which increases the transcriptional activity of the SM1/2 gene in smooth muscle, is located 27 bp upstream of the TATA-like sequence, a location identical to that found in the SM1/2 5'-flanking region. However, the promoter directed equivalent expression when transfected into smooth muscle and other cell types. Analysis of the hSlo beta subunit 5'-flanking region revealed a TATA box at position -77 and maximum promoter activity (up to 11.0-fold) in a 200 bp region upstream from the cap site. Binding sites for GATA-1, Myo-D, c-myb, Ets-1/Elk-1, Ap-1, and Ik-2 were identified within this sequence. Two CCTCCC elements are present in the hSlo beta subunit promoter, but tissue-specific transcriptional activity was not observed. The lack of tissue-specific promoter activity, particularly the finding of promoter activity in cells from tissues in which the maxiK gene is not expressed, suggests a complex channel regulatory mechanism for hSlo genes. Moreover, the lack of similarity of the promoters of the two genes suggests that regulation of coordinate expression of the subunits does not occur through equivalent cis-acting sequences. (+info)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a naturally occurring 28-amino acid peptide with a wide range of biological activities. Recent reports suggest that VIP receptors are expressed on a variety of malignant tumor cells and that the receptor density is higher than for somatostatin. Our aims were to label VIP with 99mTc--a generator-produced, inexpensive radionuclide that possesses ideal characteristics for scintigraphic imaging--and to evaluate 99mTc-VIP for bioactivity and its ability to detect experimental tumors. METHODS: VIP28 was modified at the carboxy terminus by the addition of four amino acids that provided an N4 configuration for a strong chelation of 99mTc. To eliminate steric hindrance, 4-aminobutyric acid (Aba) was used as a spacer. VIP28 was labeled with 1251, which served as a control. Biological activity of the modified VIP28 agonist (TP3654) was examined in vitro using a cell-binding assay and an opossum internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle relaxivity assay. Tissue distribution studies were performed at 4 and 24 h after injection, and receptor-blocking assays were also performed in nude mice bearing human colorectal cancer LS174T. Blood clearance was examined in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. RESULTS: The yield of 99mTc-TP3654 was quantitative, and the yields of 125I-VIP and 1251-TP3654 were >90%. All in vitro data strongly suggested that the biological activity of 99mTc-TP3654 agonist was equivalent to that of VIP28. As the time after injection increased, radioactivity in all tissues decreased, except in the receptor-enriched tumor (P = 0.84) and in the lungs (P = 0.78). The tumor uptake (0.23 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue [%ID/g]) was several-fold higher than 125I-VIP (0.06 %ID/g) at 24 h after injection in the similar system. In mice treated with unlabeled VIP or TP3654, the uptake of 99mTc-TP3654 decreased in all VIP receptor-rich tissues except the kidneys. The blood clearance was biphasic; the alpha half-time was 5 min and the beta half-time was approximately 120 min. CONCLUSION: VIP28 was modified and successfully labeled with 99mTc. The results of all in vitro examinations indicated that the biological activity of TP3654 was equivalent to that of native VIP28 and tumor binding was receptor specific. (+info)
Properties of filament-bound myosin light chain kinase.
Myosin light chain kinase binds to actin-containing filaments from cells with a greater affinity than to F-actin. However, it is not known if this binding in cells is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin as it is with F-actin. Therefore, the binding properties of the kinase to stress fibers were examined in smooth muscle-derived A7r5 cells. Full-length myosin light chain kinase or a truncation mutant lacking residues 2-142 was expressed as chimeras containing green fluorescent protein at the C terminus. In intact cells, the full-length kinase bound to stress fibers, whereas the truncated kinase showed diffuse fluorescence in the cytoplasm. After permeabilization with saponin, the fluorescence from the truncated kinase disappeared, whereas the fluorescence of the full-length kinase was retained on stress fibers. Measurements of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of the full-length myosin light chain kinase in saponin-permeable cells showed that Ca2+/calmodulin did not dissociate the kinase from these filaments. However, the filament-bound kinase was sufficient for Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain and contraction of stress fibers. Thus, dissociation of myosin light chain kinase from actin-containing thin filaments is not necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain in thick filaments. We note that the distance between the N terminus and the catalytic core of the kinase is sufficient to span the distance between thin and thick filaments. (+info)
Phenotypic and functional characterisation of myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes migrating out of the human gastric lamina propria following the loss of epithelial cells.
BACKGROUND: The basement membrane of human colonic mucosa contains numerous discrete pores. We have recently shown that following loss of the surface epithelium, many cells migrate out of the colonic lamina propria via basement membrane pores. AIMS: To characterise cells migrating out via basement membrane pores of the human gastric lamina propria, following loss of the surface epithelium. METHODS: Fresh human gastric mucosal samples were completely denuded of epithelial cells and placed in culture. Tissue samples were studied by electron microscopy (EM) and cells by EM, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: EM showed numerous discrete pores (0. 65-8.29 microm in diameter) in the subepithelial basement membrane. During culture of mucosal samples denuded of epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and myofibroblasts migrated out of the lamina propria via the basement membrane pores. The lymphocytes were predominantly CD45RO+ and CD69+ T cells. Macrophages were shown to express cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes. Myofibroblasts were established in culture and, despite prolonged culture and passage, retained their phenotype. They expressed mRNA and protein for COX 1 and 2 enzymes and their release of prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by selective COX 1 and 2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Lamina propria cells migrating out of cultured denuded gastric mucosal samples have been characterised phenotypically and functionally. Such cells would be suitable for studies of their interactions with epithelial cells and also with Helicobacter pylori and its products. (+info)
Nerve terminal damage by beta-bungarotoxin: its clinical significance.
We report here original data on the biological basis of prolonged neuromuscular paralysis caused by the toxic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin. Electron microscopy and immunocytochemical labeling with anti-synaptophysin and anti-neurofilament have been used to show that the early onset of paralysis is associated with the depletion of synaptic vesicles from the motor nerve terminals of skeletal muscle and that this is followed by the destruction of the motor nerve terminal and the degeneration of the cytoskeleton of the intramuscular axons. The postjunctional architecture of the junctions were unaffected and the binding of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptor was not apparently affected by exposure to beta-bungarotoxin. The re-innervation of the muscle fiber was associated by extensive pre- and post-terminal sprouting at 3 to 5 days but was stable by 7 days. Extensive collateral innervation of adjacent muscle fibers was a significant feature of the re-innervated neuromuscular junctions. These findings suggest that the prolonged and severe paralysis seen in victims of envenoming bites by kraits (elapid snakes of the genus Bungarus) and other related snakes of the family Elapidae is caused by the depletion of synaptic vesicles from motor nerve terminals and the degeneration of the motor nerve terminal and intramuscular axons. (+info)
Uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle: effects of oestrogen, antioestrogen and oxytocin.
Uterine peristalsis, directing sustained and rapid sperm transport from the external cervical os or the cervical crypts to the isthmic part of the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, changes in direction and frequency during the menstrual cycle, with lowest activity during menstruation and highest activity at mid cycle. It was therefore suggested that uterine peristalsis is under the control of the dominant follicle with the additional involvement of oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis was performed in the early, mid and late proliferative phases, respectively, of cycles of women treated with oestradiol valerate and with human menopausal gonadotrophin following pituitary downregulation, with clomiphene citrate and with intravenous oxytocin, respectively. Administration of oestradiol valerate resulted in oestradiol serum concentrations comparable with the normal cycle with a simulation of the normal frequency of peristaltic contractions. Elevated oestradiol concentrations and bolus injections of oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of peristaltic contractions in the early and mid follicular phases, respectively. Chlomiphene tended, though insignificantly so, to suppress the frequency of peristaltic waves in the presence of elevated oestradiol concentrations. In the late follicular phase of the cycle extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations as well as the injection of oxytocin resulted only in an insignificant further increase of peristaltic frequency. In the normal cycles, as well as during extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations and following oxytocin administration, the peristaltic contractions were always confined to the subendometrial layer of the muscular wall. The results and the review of literature indicate that uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is controlled by oestradiol released from the dominant follicle with the probable involvement of oxytocin, which is presumably stimulated together with its receptor within the endometrial-subendometrial unit and therefore acting in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. Since unphysiological stimulation with oestradiol and oxytocin did not significantly increase the frequency of uterine peristalsis in the late follicular phase of the cycle it is assumed that normal preovulatory frequency of uterine peristalsis is at a level which cannot be significantly surpassed due to phenomena of refractoriness of the system. (+info)