(1/2533) Preservation of postural control of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in patients with reflux oesophagitis.
INTRODUCTION: In normal subjects, transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) and gas reflux during belching are suppressed in the supine position. Supine reflux, however, is a feature of reflux disease. AIMS: To investigate whether postural suppression of TLOSRs and gas reflux is impaired in patients with reflux disease. PATIENTS: Ten patients with erosive oesophagitis. METHODS: Oesophageal manometry was performed during gastric distension with 750 ml carbon dioxide. Measurements were made for 10 minutes before and after distension in both sitting and supine positions. RESULTS: In the sitting position gastric distension substantially increased the rate of gas reflux (median (interquartile range)), as evidenced by increases in oesophageal common cavities from 1 (0-1)/10 min to 7 (5-10)/10 min and TLOSRs from 1 (1-1.5)/10 min to 6 (2.5-8)/10 min. However, this effect was suppressed in the supine position in all but one patient (TLOSRs 0 (0)/10 min to 1 (0-4.5)/10 min, common cavities 0 (0)/10 min to 0.5 (0-2)/10 min). CONCLUSIONS: Postural suppression of TLOSRs and gas reflux is generally preserved in reflux disease. (+info)
(2/2533) Comparison of functional antagonism between isoproterenol and M2 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig ileum and trachea.
The ability of the M2 muscarinic receptor to mediate an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin and isoproterenol was investigated in guinea pig ileum and trachea. In some experiments, trachea was first treated with 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) mustard to inactivate M3 receptors. The contractile response to oxotremorine-M was measured subsequently in the presence of both histamine (10 microM) and isoproterenol (10 nM). Under these conditions, [[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3b]-[1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) antagonized the contractile response to oxotremorine-M in a manner consistent with an M3 mechanism. However, when the same experiment was repeated using forskolin (4 microM) instead of isoproterenol, the response to oxotremorine-M exhibited greater potency and was antagonized by AF-DX 116 in a manner consistent with an M2 mechanism. We also measured the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the ability of isoproterenol to inhibit the contraction elicited by a single concentration of either histamine (0.3 microM) or oxotremorine-M (40 nM) in both the ileum and trachea. Pertussis toxin treatment had no significant effect on the potency of isoproterenol for inhibiting histamine-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. In contrast, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum but not in the trachea. Also, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of forskolin against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. We investigated the relaxant potency of isoproterenol when very low, equi-effective (i.e., 20-34% of maximal response) concentrations of either histamine or oxotremorine-M were used to elicit contraction. Under these conditions, isoproterenol exhibited greater relaxant potency against histamine in the ileum but exhibited similar relaxant potencies against histamine and oxotremorine-M in the trachea. Following 4-DAMP mustard treatment, a low concentration of oxotremorine-M (10 nM) had no contractile effect in either the ileum or trachea. Nevertheless, in 4-DAMP mustard-treated tissue, oxotremorine-M (10 nM) reduced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against histamine-induced contractions in the ileum, but not in the trachea. We conclude that in the trachea the M2 receptor mediates an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin, but not isoproterenol, and the decreased relaxant potency of isoproterenol against contractions elicited by a muscarinic agonist relative to histamine is not due to activation of M2 receptors but rather to the greater contractile stimulus mediated by the M3 receptor compared with the H1 histamine receptor. (+info)
(3/2533) The effect of thin filament activation on the attachment of weak binding cross-bridges: A two-dimensional x-ray diffraction study on single muscle fibers.
To study possible structural changes in weak cross-bridge attachment to actin upon activation of the thin filament, two-dimensional (2D) x-ray diffraction patterns of skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were recorded at low and high calcium concentration in the presence of saturating concentrations of MgATPgammaS, a nucleotide analog for weak binding states. We also studied 2D x-ray diffraction patterns recorded under relaxing conditions at an ionic strength above and below 50 mM, because it had been proposed from solution studies that reducing ionic strength below 50 mM also induces activation of the thin filament. For this project a novel preparation had to be established that allows recording of 2D x-ray diffraction patterns from single muscle fibers instead of natural fiber bundles. This was required to minimize substrate depletion or product accumulation within the fibers. When the calcium concentration was raised, the diffraction patterns recorded with MgATPgammaS revealed small changes in meridional reflections and layer line intensities that could be attributed in part to the effects of calcium binding to the thin filament (increase in I380, decrease in first actin layer line intensity, increase in I59) and in part to small structural changes of weakly attached cross-bridges (e.g., increase in I143 and I72). Calcium-induced small-scale structural rearrangements of cross-bridges weakly attached to actin in the presence of MgATPgammaS are consistent with our previous observation of reduced rate constants for attachment and detachment of cross-bridges with MgATPgammaS at high calcium. Yet, no evidence was found that weakly attached cross-bridges change their mode of attachment toward a stereospecific conformation when the actin filament is activated by adding calcium. Similarly, reducing ionic strength to less than 50 mM does not induce a transition from nonstereospecific to stereospecific attachment. (+info)
(4/2533) Intracellular EDTA mimics parvalbumin in the promotion of skeletal muscle relaxation.
Parvalbumin (PA) is an intracellular Ca2+-binding protein found in some muscle and nerves. Its ability to bind Ca2+ and facilitate skeletal muscle relaxation is limited by its Mg2+ off-rate. EDTA serves as an "artificial" PA in that it exhibited similar rate constants for Mg2+ (3 s-1) and Ca2+ (0.7 s-1) dissociation at 10 degrees C. When introduced into frog skeletal muscle, EDTA increased the relaxation rate by approximately 2.7-fold, and with increasing tetanus duration, EDTA lost its ability to contribute to relaxation (and Ca2+ sequestration) at its Mg2+ off-rate. Intracellular EDTA recovered its ability to contribute to muscle relaxation and Ca2+ sequestration at its Ca2+ off-rate. Like PA, EDTA's contribution to muscle relaxation and Ca2+ sequestration was more clearly observed when the SR Ca-ATPase was inhibited. Introduction of EDTA into rat soleus muscle, which has low [PA], increased the relaxation rate in a manner that was analogous to the way in which PA facilitates relaxation of frog skeletal muscle. Thus intracellular EDTA serves as an effective mimic of PA, and its use should aid in our understanding of PA's function in muscle and nerve. (+info)
(5/2533) Inhibition of the ATP-dependent interaction of actin and myosin by the catalytic domain of the myosin light chain kinase of smooth muscle: possible involvement in smooth muscle relaxation.
Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the light chain of smooth muscle myosin enabling its interaction with actin. This interaction initiates smooth muscle contraction. MLCK has another role that is not attributable to its phosphorylating activity, i.e., it inhibits the ATP-dependent movement of actin filaments on a glass surface coated with phosphorylated myosin. To analyze the inhibitory effect of MLCK, the catalytic domain of MLCK was obtained with or without the regulatory sequence adjacent to the C-terminal of the domain, and the inhibitory effect of the domain was examined by the movement of actin filaments. All the domains work so as to inhibit actin filament movement whether or not the regulatory sequence is included. When the domain includes the regulatory sequence, calmodulin in the presence of calcium abolishes the inhibition. Since the phosphorylation reaction is not involved in regulating the movement by MLCK, and a catalytic fragment that shows no kinase activity also inhibits movement, the kinase activity is not related to inhibition. Higher concentrations of MLCK inhibit the binding of actin filaments to myosin-coated surfaces as well as their movement. We discuss the dual roles of the domain, the phosphorylation of myosin that allows myosin to cross-bridge with actin and a novel function that breaks cross-bridging. (+info)
(6/2533) The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation.
1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2. (+info)
(7/2533) Enantioselective inhibition of the biotransformation and pharmacological actions of isoidide dinitrate by diphenyleneiodonium sulphate.
1. We have shown previously that the D- and L- enantiomers of isoidide dinitrate (D-IIDN and L-IIDN) exhibit a potency difference for relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in isolated rat aorta and that this is related to preferential biotransformation of the more potent enantiomer (D-IIDN). The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium sulphate (DPI), on the enantioselectivity of IIDN action. 2. In isolated rat aortic strip preparations, exposure to 0.3 microM DPI resulted in a 3.6 fold increase in the EC50 value for D-IIDN-induced relaxation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced relaxation. 3. Incubation of aortic strips with 2 microM D- or L-IIDN for 5 min resulted in significantly more D-isoidide mononitrate formed (5.0 +/- 1.5 pmol mg protein(-1)) than L-isoidide mononitrate (2.1 +/- 0.7 pmol mg protein(-1)) and this difference was abolished by pretreatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI. DPI had no effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or GSH-dependent biotransformation of D- or L-IIDN in the 105,000 x g supernatant fraction of rat aorta. 4. Consistent with both the relaxation and biotransformation data, treatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI significantly inhibited D-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation. 5. In the intact animal, 2 mg kg(-1) DPI significantly inhibited the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic properties of D-IIDN, but had no effect L-IIDN. 6. These data suggest that the basis for the potency difference for relaxation by the two enantiomers is preferential biotransformation of D-IIDN to NO, by an enzyme that is inhibited by DPI. Given that DPI binds to and inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, the data are consistent with a role for the cytochromes P450-NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system in this enantioselective biotransformation process. (+info)
(8/2533) Effect of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in the rat aorta.
1. This study sought to evaluate whether the effects of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in rat aortic rings are mediated through the same mechanism. 2. Ovariectomized rats were treated daily with either 17-beta-estradiol-3-benzoate (100 microg kg(-1)) or vehicle for 1 week. 3. The effect of long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment on the responses to cumulative doses of phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and 17-beta-estradiol was determined in aortic rings. In the same rings, the effect of acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol (5 and 10 microM) on the dose response curves for phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and acetylcholine were estimated. The measurements were made in rings with and without intact endothelium. The tone-related basal release of nitric oxide (NO) was measured in rings with intact endothelium. 4. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment reduced the maximum developed contraction to all contracting agents studied. This effect was abolished in endothelium denuded vessels. Acute 17-beta-estradiol treatment also reduced maximal contraction. This effect, however, was independent of the endothelium. 5. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment significantly increased the ability of the rings to dilate in response to acetylcholine whereas acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol had no effect. The tone-related release of NO was significantly increased after long-term exposure to 17-beta-estradiol. 6. In conclusion, this study indicate that the acute and long-term effects of 17-beta-estradiol in the rat aorta are mediated through different mechanisms. The long-term effect is mediated through the endothelium most likely by increasing NO release. In contrast, the acute effect of 17-beta-estradiol seems to be through an effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells. (+info)