Developmental aspects of secondary palate formation.
Research on development of the secondary palate has, in the past, dealt primarily with morphological aspects of shelf elevation and fusion. The many factors thought to be involved in palatal elevation, such as fetal neuromuscular activity and growth of the cranial base and mandible, as well as production of extracellular matrix and contractile elements in the palate, are mostly based on gross, light microscopic, morphometric or histochemical observations. Recently, more biochemical procedures have been utilized to described palatal shelf elevation. Although these studies strongly suggest that palatal extracellular matrix plays a major role in shelf movement, interpretation of these data remains difficult owing to the complexity of tissue interactions involved in craniofacial development. Shelf elevation does not appear to involve a single motive factor, but rather a coordinated interaction of all of the abovementioned developmental events. Further analysis of mechanisms of shelf elevation requires development of new, and refinement of existing, in vitro procedures. A system that enables one to examine shelf elevation in vitro would allow more meaningful analysis of the relative importance of the various components in shelf movement. Much more is known about fusion of the palatal shelves, owing in large part to in vitro studies. Fusion of the apposing shelves, both in vivo and in vitro, is dependent upon adhesion and cell dealth of the midline epithelial cells. Adhesion betweeen apposing epithelial surfaces appears to involve epithelial cell surface macromolecules. Further analysis of palatal epithelial adhesion should be directed towards characterization of those cell surface components responsible for this adhesive interaction. Midline epithelial cells cease DNA synthesis 24-36 h before shelf elevation and contact, become active in the synthesis of cell surface glycoproteins, and subsequently manifest morphological signs of necrosis. Death of the midline epithelial cells is thought to involve a programmed, lysosomal-mediated autolysis... (+info)
Toxicokinetic interactions between orally ingested chlorzoxazone and inhaled acetone or toluene in male volunteers.
The aim of this study was to examine if the drug chlorzoxazone has any influence on the toxicokinetics of acetone and toluene. Chlorzoxazone is mainly metabolized by the same enzyme (Cytochrome P450 2E1) as ethanol and many other organic solvents. Ten male volunteers were exposed to solvent vapor (2 h, 50 watt) in an exposure chamber. Each subject was exposed to acetone only (250 ppm), acetone + chlorzoxazone, toluene (50 ppm) only, toluene + chlorzoxazone, and chlorzoxazone only. Chlorzoxazone (500 mg) was taken as two tablets 1 h prior to solvent exposure. Samples of blood, urine and exhaled air were collected before, during and until 20 h post exposure. The samples were analyzed by head-space gas chromatography (acetone and toluene) and high-performance liquid chromatography (chlorzoxazone, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone and hippuric acid). The time-concentration curves of acetone and toluene in blood were fitted to one- and four-compartment toxicokinetic models, respectively. Intake of chlorzoxazone was associated with slight but significant increases in the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) and steady state concentration of acetone in blood, along with non significant tendencies to an increased half time in blood and an increased AUC in urine. Except for a delayed excretion of hippuric acid in urine, no effects on the toluene toxicokinetics were seen after chlorzoxazone treatment. Small increases in chlorzoxazone plasma levels were seen after exposure compared to chlorzoxazone alone. These interactions, although statistically significant, seem to be small compared to the interindividual variability on metabolism and toxicokinetics. (+info)
Simultaneous evaluation of spatial working memory and motivation by the allocentric place discrimination task in the water maze in rats.
In order to evaluate learning and memory deficits separately from and simultaneously with motivational, motor and sensory impairments in identical animals, we developed the allocentric place discrimination task test using a water maze in rats. For this assessment task, two similar, visible platforms, one was fixed and the other was floating, were simultaneously present in a pool, and the working memory of the allocentric place discrimination task was evaluated. After training, the task accuracy was high about 85% correct and animals were used repeatedly. The accuracy decreased significantly when the pool was surrounded with a black curtain. Muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine 0.5 mg/kg selectively impaired the accuracy. Muscle relaxant dantrolene 10 mg/kg selectively decreased swimming speed. Under low motivational condition (warm water), still time increased and swimming speed decreased, but the accuracy was not affected. Similar to warm water, opioid receptor agonist morphine 15 mg/kg increased still time and decreased swimming speed. These results suggest that the allocentric place discrimination task is useful in evaluating spatial working memory ability independently of and concurrently with also visual, motor ability and motivation in identical animals. (+info)
Effect of the acute-phase response on the pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in vitro activity in rats.
The acute-phase response is known to produce alterations in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) expression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well known inducer of acute-phase response decreases hepatic CYP2E1 in vitro activity in rats. This study was designed to determine if LPS administration produced alterations in the pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone (CZN), a marker for CYP2E1 expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single i.p. injection of LPS (5 mg/kg) or saline control approximately 24 h before a single i.v. bolus dose of CZN (15 mg/kg). Serial blood samples were collected over a 120-min period to quantitate CZN plasma concentrations and protein binding. In addition, livers were removed and processed for evaluating in vitro CYP2E1 protein concentrations and activity. Systemic clearance decreased by 35% in LPS-treated rats, whereas half-life and steady-state volume of distribution increased by 167 and 66%, respectively. The plasma free-fraction of CZN increased 2-fold after LPS treatment. The CZN intrinsic clearance decreased in LPS rats by 71% compared with control values. The CYP2E1 liver microsomal activity decreased between 55 and 75% along with a 41% decrease in CYP2E1 protein concentration. The CZN intrinsic clearance was significantly correlated with both the CZN and p-nitrophenol liver microsomal activity (r = 0.97 and r = 0.91, respectively). This study demonstrated that LPS administration produced expected reductions in the in vivo intrinsic clearance of CZN, and these changes were highly correlated with in vitro activity studies. In addition, LPS produced significant increases in the steady-state volume of distribution of CZN secondary to reductions in its plasma protein binding. (+info)
Suspected recurrence of malignant hyperthermia after post-extubation shivering in the intensive care unit, 18 h after tonsillectomy.
A 25-yr-old man, subsequently shown to be malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptible by in vitro contracture testing, developed MH during anaesthesia for tonsillectomy. Prompt treatment, including dantrolene, led to rapid resolution of the metabolic crisis. Eighteen hours later the patient's trachea was extubated in the ICU, when he had been stable and apyrexial overnight. Twenty minutes after extubation, an episode of shivering was followed by the onset of tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnoea and a rapid increase in temperature. Recurrence of MH was suspected and the patient was given another dose of dantrolene with good clinical effect. Shivering in this patient may have been an indicator or a causative factor of recurrence of MH. (+info)
Potentiation of vancomycin-induced histamine release by muscle relaxants and morphine in rats.
The intravenous injection of vancomycin sometimes causes anaphylactoid reactions, in which histamine release may play a major role. These reactions are more frequently manifested when vancomycin is injected into anesthetized patients. We examined the vancomycin-induced histamine release and the interaction of vancomycin with muscle relaxants or opioid in rats. In an in vitro study with rat peritoneal mast cells, treatment with vancomycin at concentrations of greater than 1.25 mM produced significant histamine release. Tubocurarine, vecuronium, pancuronium, succinylcholine, and morphine up to concentrations of 0.25, 1, 5, 30, and 5 mM, respectively, produced no significant histamine release. However, the nonsignificant histamine release induced by 0.5 mM vancomycin was clearly enhanced by combining vancomycin with any of these agents. In the in vivo study, the intravenous injection of vancomycin significantly increased the plasma histamine levels in rats when vancomycin was injected at 200 mg/kg of body weight (63.2 +/- 34.0 ng/ml [mean +/- standard deviation]) but not when it was injected at 100 mg/kg (30.8 +/- 20.2 ng/ml) compared with that in the saline-treated rats (22.5 +/- 11.4 ng/ml). Although the subcutaneous administration of morphine (10 mg/kg) never increased the plasma histamine levels, the intravenous injection of vancomycin (100 mg/kg) 30 min after this morphine treatment markedly increased the plasma histamine levels (56.0 +/- 26.9 ng/ml). These findings provide experimental evidence that the combination of muscle relaxants or an opioid with vancomycin may increase the risk of anaphylactoid reactions by enhancing the release of histamine. (+info)
In vitro inhibition of the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system by the antiplatelet drug ticlopidine: potent effect on CYP2C19 and CYP2D6.
AIMS: To examine the potency of ticlopidine (TCL) as an inhibitor of cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant human CYP450s. METHODS: Isoform-specific substrate probes of CYP1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 were incubated in HLMs or recombinant CYPs with or without TCL. Preliminary data were generated to simulate an appropriate range of substrate and inhibitor concentrations to construct Dixon plots. In order to estimate accurately inhibition constants (Ki values) of TCL and determine the type of inhibition, data from experiments with three different HLMs for each isoform were fitted to relevant nonlinear regression enzyme inhibition models by WinNonlin. RESULTS: TCL was a potent, competitive inhibitor of CYP2C19 (Ki = 1.2 +/- 0.5 microM) and of CYP2D6 (Ki = 3.4 +/- 0.3 microM). These Ki values fell within the therapeutic steady-state plasma concentrations of TCL (1-3 microM). TCL was also a moderate inhibitor of CYP1A2 (Ki = 49 +/- 19 microM) and a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9 (Ki > 75 microM), but its effect on the activities of CYP2E1 (Ki = 584 +/- 48 microM) and CYP3A (> 1000 microM) was marginal. CONCLUSIONS: TCL appears to be a broad-spectrum inhibitor of the CYP isoforms, but clinically significant adverse drug interactions are most likely with drugs that are substrates of CYP2C19 or CYP2D6. (+info)
Triggering of transient LES relaxations in ferrets: role of sympathetic pathways and effects of baclofen.
Activation of gastric vagal mechanoreceptors by distention is thought to be the trigger for transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESR), which lead to gastroesophageal reflux. The contribution of higher-threshold gastric splanchnic mechanoreceptors is uninvestigated. GABA(B) receptor agonists, including baclofen, potently reduce triggering of TLESR by low-level gastric distention. We aimed to determine first whether this effect of baclofen is maintained at high-level distention and second the role of splanchnic pathways in triggering TLESR. Micromanometric/pH studies in conscious ferrets showed that intragastric glucose infusion (25 ml) increased triggering of TLESR and reflux. Both were significantly reduced by baclofen (7 micromol/kg ip) (P < 0.05). When 40 ml of air was added to the glucose infusion, more TLESR occurred than with glucose alone (P < 0.01). These were also reduced by baclofen (P < 0.001). TLESR after glucose/air infusion were assessed before and after splanchnectomy (2-4, 9-11, and 23-25 days), which revealed no change. Baclofen inhibits TLESR after both low- and high-level gastric distention. Splanchnic pathways do not contribute to increased triggering of TLESR by high-level gastric distention. (+info)