Effects of muscle perfusion pressure on fatigue and systemic arterial pressure in human subjects.
The effects of changes in arterial perfusion across the physiological range on the fatigue of a working human hand muscle were studied in seven normal subjects. With the hand above heart level, subjects made repeated isometric contractions of the adductor pollicis muscle at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction in a 6-s on, 4-s off cycle. To assess fatigue, a maximal isometric twitch was elicited in each "off" period by electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve. The experiment was repeated at least 2 days later with the hand at heart level. Five subjects showed faster fatigue with the arm elevated, and two subjects showed little difference in fatigue for the two conditions. Central blood pressure rose in proportion to fatigue for the subjects overall and returned quickly to its initial level afterwards. We conclude that human muscle fatigue can be increased by physiological reductions in perfusion pressure. Central blood pressure increases as the muscle fatigues, a response that may partially offset declining muscle performance. (+info)
Effect of ambient temperature on human skeletal muscle metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise.
To examine the effect of ambient temperature on metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise, eight men cycled to exhaustion at a workload requiring 70% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake on three separate occasions, at least 1 wk apart. These trials were conducted in ambient temperatures of 3 degrees C (CT), 20 degrees C (NT), and 40 degrees C (HT). Although no differences in muscle or rectal temperature were observed before exercise, both muscle and rectal temperature were higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT and NT. Exercise time was longer in CT compared with NT, which, in turn, was longer compared with HT (85 +/- 8 vs. 60 +/- 11 vs. 30 +/- 3 min, respectively; P < 0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentration was not different at rest or at the point of fatigue when the three trials were compared, but concentrations of this hormone were higher (P < 0.05) when HT was compared with NT, which in turn was higher (P < 0.05) compared with CT after 20 min of exercise. Muscle glycogen concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher at fatigue in HT compared with NT and CT, which were not different (299 +/- 33 vs. 153 +/- 27 and 116 +/- 28 mmol/kg dry wt, respectively; P < 0.01). Intramuscular lactate concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT. No differences in the concentration of the total intramuscular adenine nucleotide pool (ATP + ADP + AMP), phosphocreatine, or creatine were observed before or after exercise when the trials were compared. Although intramuscular IMP concentrations were not statistically different before or after exercise when the three trials were compared, there was an exercise-induced increase (P < 0.01) in IMP. These results demonstrate that fatigue during prolonged exercise in hot conditions is not related to carbohydrate availability. Furthermore, the increased endurance in CT compared with NT is probably due to a reduced glycogenolytic rate. (+info)
Nine African and eight Caucasian 10-km runners resident at sea level volunteered. Maximal O2 consumption and peak treadmill velocity (PTV) were measured by using a progressive test, and fatigue resistance [time to fatigue (TTF)] was measured by using a newly developed high-intensity running test: 5 min at 72, 80, and 88% of individual PTV followed by 92% PTV to exhaustion. Skeletal muscle enzyme activities were determined in 12 runners and 12 sedentary control subjects. In a comparison of African and Caucasian runners, mean 10-km race time, maximal O2 consumption, and PTV were similar. In African runners, TTF was 21% longer (P < 0.01), plasma lactate accumulation after 5 min at 88% PTV was 38% lower (P < 0.05), and citrate synthase activity was 50% higher (27.9 +/- 7.5 vs. 18.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. g wet wt-1. min-1, P = 0.02). Africans accumulated lactate at a slower rate with increasing exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Among the entire group of runners, a higher citrate synthase activity was associated with a longer TTF (r = 0.70, P < 0.05), a lower plasma lactate accumulation (r = -0.73, P = 0.01), and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (r = -0.63, P < 0.05). We conclude that the African and Caucasian runners in the present study differed with respect to oxidative enzyme activity, rate of lactate accumulation, and their ability to sustain high-intensity endurance exercise. (+info)
Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat.
We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P < 0.05). Similarly, with different rates of heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was significantly shorter at the high than at the lower rate of heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P < 0.05). Increases in heart rate and reductions in stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These results demonstrate that high internal body temperature per se causes fatigue in trained subjects during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments. Furthermore, time to exhaustion in hot environments is inversely related to the initial temperature and directly related to the rate of heat storage. (+info)
Early occurrence of respiratory muscle deoxygenation assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during leg exercise in patients with chronic heart failure.
The mechanisms of respiratory muscle deoxygenation during incremental leg exercise with expired gas analysis were investigated in 29 patients with chronic heart failure and 21 normal subjects. The deoxygenation and blood volume of the respiratory muscle and exercising leg muscle were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). To evaluate the influence of the leg exercise on the blood volume of the respiratory muscle, 10 normal subjects also underwent a hyperventilation test with NIRS. The respiratory muscle deoxygenation point (RDP), at which oxygenated hemoglobin starts to decrease, was observed in both groups during exercise. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and the minute ventilation at the RDP in the patients was lower (p<0.01). At the same VO2, the respiratory rate was higher in patients (p<0.01). During exercise, the blood volume of the leg muscle increased, while that of the respiratory muscle decreased. During a hyperventilation test, the minute ventilation was higher than that of the RDP during exercise, the blood volume of the respiratory muscle did not decrease, and the RDP was not detectable. In conclusion, a limited ability to increase perfusion of respiratory muscles during exercise combined with the greater work of breathing results in early respiratory muscle deoxygenation in patients with chronic heart failure. (+info)
Altered reflex sensitivity after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching.
Experiments were carried out to test the effect of prolonged and repeated passive stretching (RPS) of the triceps surae muscle on reflex sensitivity. The results demonstrated a clear deterioration of muscle function immediately after RPS. Maximal voluntary contraction, average electromyographic activity of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, and zero crossing rate of the soleus muscle (recorded from 50% maximal voluntary contraction) decreased on average by 23.2, 19.9, 16.5, and 12.2%, respectively. These changes were associated with a clear immediate reduction in the reflex sensitivity; stretch reflex peak-to-peak amplitude decreased by 84. 8%, and the ratio of the electrically induced maximal Hoffmann reflex to the maximal mass compound action potential decreased by 43. 8%. Interestingly, a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the stretch-resisting force of the measured muscles was observed. Serum creatine kinase activity stayed unaltered. This study presents evidence that the mechanism that decreases the sensitivity of short-latency reflexes can be activated because of RPS. The origin of this system seems to be a reduction in the activity of the large-diameter afferents, resulting from the reduced sensitivity of the muscle spindles to repeated stretch. (+info)
Physiological responses of exercised-fatigued individuals exposed to wet-cold conditions.
Thirteen healthy and fit men [age = 27 +/- 8 (SD) yr, height = 177 +/- 5 cm, mass = 75 +/- 7 kg, body fat = 14 +/- 5%, maximal O2 consumption = 51 +/- 4 ml. kg-1. min-1] participated in an experiment designed to test their thermoregulatory response to a challenging cold exposure after 5 h of demanding mixed exercise during which only water was consumed. Subjects expended 7,314 +/- 741 kJ on cycling, rowing, and treadmill-walking machines, performed 8,403 +/- 1,401 kg. m of mechanical work during resistance exercises, and completed 120 inclined sit-ups. Subjects then assumed a seated position in a 10 degrees C air environment while wearing shorts, T-shirt, rain hat, and neoprene gloves and boots. After 30 min the subjects were showered continuously with cold water ( approximately 920 ml/min at 10 degrees C) on their backs accompanied by a 6 km/h wind for up to 4 h. Blood samples were taken from the nondominant arm every 30 min during the exposure and assayed for energy metabolites, hormones, indexes of hydration, and neurotransmitters. Counterbalanced control trials without prior exercise were also conducted. Blood insulin was higher during the control trial, whereas values of glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, cortisol, free triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were lower. Three subjects lasted the maximum duration of 4.5 h for control and fatigue trials, with final rectal temperatures of 36.43 +/- 0.21 and 36.08 +/- 0.49 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the duration of 172 +/- 68 (SD) min for the fatigue trial was not significantly different from that of the control trial (197 +/- 72 min) and, therefore, was not affected by the preexposure exercise. Although duration was positively correlated to body fatness and shivering intensity, the latter was not correlated to any physical characteristic or the fitness level of the individual. (+info)
Effects of activation frequency and force on low-frequency fatigue in human skeletal muscle.
No comparison of the amount of low-frequency fatigue (LFF) produced by different activation frequencies exists, although frequencies ranging from 10 to 100 Hz have been used to induce LFF. The quadriceps femoris of 11 healthy subjects were tested in 5 separate sessions. In each session, the force-generating ability of the muscle was tested before and after fatigue and at 2, approximately 13, and approximately 38 min of recovery. Brief (6-pulse), constant-frequency trains of 9.1, 14.3, 33.3, and 100 Hz and a 6-pulse, variable-frequency train with a mean frequency of 14.3 Hz were delivered at 1 train/s to induce fatigue. Immediately postfatigue, there was a significant effect of fatiguing protocol frequency. Muscles exhibited greater LFF after stimulation with the 9.1-, 14.3-, and variable-frequency trains. These three trains also produced the greatest mean force-time integrals during the fatigue test. At 2, approximately 13, and approximately 38 min of recovery, however, the LFF produced was independent of the fatiguing protocol frequency. The findings are consistent with theories suggesting two independent mechanisms behind LFF and may help identify the optimal activation pattern when functional electrical stimulation is used. (+info)