Enrichment of enzyme activity on deformylation of 1-NFK-lysozyme.
The formamide linkage of an inactive lysozyme derivative (1-NFK-lysozyme), formed by selective ozonization of tryptophan 62 in hen egg-white lysozyme [EC 184.108.40.206] was hydrolyzed with dilute acid faster in the frozen state at about --10 degrees than at 20 degrees. On hydrolysis of 1-NFK-lysozyme the low lytic activity increased to approximately 80% of that of native lysozyme. It is suggested that the binding ability associated with kynurenine 62 in the lysozyme derivative formed by this hydrolysis may be responsible for increase in enzymatic activity. (+info)
Macrophage plasminogen activator: induction by asbestos is blocked by anti-inflammatory steroids.
Intraperitoneal injection of asbestos fibres into mice induces the formation of exudates containing macrophages that produce plasminogen activator. Like-wise, in vitro addition of asbestos to macrophage cultures stimulates plasminogen activator secretion; the synthesis and secretion of lysozyme and lysosomal enzymes are not changed under these conditions. The enhanced secretion of plasminogen activator by macrophages exposed to asbestos is suppressed by low concentrations of anti-inflammatory steroids. (+info)
Simplified methods for pKa and acid pH-dependent stability estimation in proteins: removing dielectric and counterion boundaries.
Much computational research aimed at understanding ionizable group interactions in proteins has focused on numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation, incorporating protein exclusion zones for solvent and counterions in a continuum model. Poor agreement with measured pKas and pH-dependent stabilities for a (protein, solvent) relative dielectric boundary of (4,80) has lead to the adoption of an intermediate (20,80) boundary. It is now shown that a simple Debye-Huckel (DH) calculation, removing both the low dielectric and counterion exclusion regions associated with protein, is equally effective in general pKa calculations. However, a broad-based discrepancy to measured pH-dependent stabilities is maintained in the absence of ionizable group interactions in the unfolded state. A simple model is introduced for these interactions, with a significantly improved match to experiment that suggests a potential utility in predicting and analyzing the acid pH-dependence of protein stability. The methods are applied to the relative pH-dependent stabilities of the pore-forming domains of colicins A and N. The results relate generally to the well-known preponderance of surface ionizable groups with solvent-mediated interactions. Although numerical PB solutions do not currently have a significant advantage for overall pKa estimations, development based on consideration of microscopic solvation energetics in tandem with the continuum model could combine the large deltapKas of a subset of ionizable groups with the overall robustness of the DH model. (+info)
Peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity of the FlgJ protein, essential for flagellar rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium.
Because the rod structure of the flagellar basal body crosses the inner membrane, the periplasmic space, and the outer membrane, its formation must involve hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer. So far, more than 10 genes have been shown to be required for rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. Some of them encode the component proteins of the rod structure, and most of the remaining genes are believed to encode proteins involved in the export process of the component proteins. Although FlgJ has also been known to be involved in rod formation, its exact role has not been understood. Recently, it was suggested that the C-terminal half of the FlgJ protein has homology to the active center of some muramidase enzymes from gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we showed that the purified FlgJ protein from S. typhimurium has a peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity and that this activity is localized in its C-terminal half. Through oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we constructed flgJ mutants with amino acid substitutions in the putative active center of the muramidase. The resulting mutants produced FlgJ proteins with reduced enzymatic activity and showed poor motility. These results indicate that the muramidase activity of FlgJ is essential for flagellar formation. Immunoblotting analysis with the fractionated cell extracts revealed that FlgJ is exported to the periplasmic space, where the peptidoglycan layer is localized. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlgJ is the flagellum-specific muramidase which hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan layer to assemble the rod structure in the periplasmic space. (+info)
The amino acid sequence of wood duck lysozyme.
The amino acid sequence of wood duck (Aix sponsa) lysozyme was analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had the highest similarity to duck III lysozyme with four amino acid substitutions, and had eighteen amino acid substitutions from chicken lysozyme. The valine at position 75 was newly detected in chicken-type lysozymes. In the active site, Tyr34 and Glu57 were found at subsites F and D, respectively, when compared with chicken lysozyme. (+info)
Association and dissociation kinetics of bobwhite quail lysozyme with monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5.
The anti-hen egg lysozyme monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5 and its complexes with various species-variant and mutant lysozymes have been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical investigation. The affinity of HyHEL-5 for bobwhite quail lysozyme (BWQL) is over 1000-fold lower than its affinity for the original antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL). This difference is believed to arise almost entirely from the replacement in BWQL of the structural and energetic epitope residue Arg68 by lysine. In this study, the association and dissociation kinetics of BWQL with HyHEL-5 were investigated under a variety of conditions and compared with previous results for HEL. HyHEL-5-BWQL association follows a bimolecular mechanism and the dissociation of the antibody-antigen complex is a first-order process. Changes in ionic strength (from 27 to 500 mM) and pH (from 6.0 to 10.0) produced about a 2-fold change in the association and dissociation rates. The effect of viscosity modifiers on the association reaction was also studied. The large difference in the HEL and BWQL affinities for HyHEL-5 is essentially due to differences in the dissociation rate constant. (+info)
Ups and downs of protein crystallization: studies of protein crystals by high-performance capillary electrophoresis.
High-performance capillary electrophoresis is a high-technology micro-separation method. Short run time, full automation and minute amounts of sample make it a very attractive technique. In this report we describe studies of protein crystals by capillary electrophoresis. We show how high-performance capillary electrophoresis can be used effectively for rapid evaluation and examination of the protein solution used for crystallization, the protein crystals (solubilized) and surrounding mother liquor. With coated capillaries, the runs were reproducible and disturbing effects, such as electroendosmosis and interaction of the proteins with the capillary wall, were suppressed efficiently. We recommend this new technique as a powerful and routine companion to protein crystallography. (+info)
Lysozyme and RNases as anti-HIV components in beta-core preparations of human chorionic gonadotropin.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) preparations contain activity against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). However, there has been controversy about whether some biological activities of hCG beta-subunit (hCGbeta) preparations are caused by the beta-subunit itself or other proteins present in the preparations. We report here the purification, characterization, and identification of three enzymes with anti-HIV activity present in the beta-core fraction of hCGbeta prepared from the urine of pregnant women. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of one protein is identical to human urinary lysozyme C, and those of the other two are identical to human RNase A and urinary RNase U. We thus refer to these proteins as AVL (antiviral lysozyme) and AVR (antiviral RNases). In addition to HIV-1 inhibition, AVL is capable of lysing Micrococcus lysodeikticus. AVR digests a variety of RNA substrates, including RNA from HIV-1-infected cells. We also find that lysozyme from chicken egg white, human milk, and human neutrophils and RNase A from bovine pancreas possess activity against HIV-1. These findings may offer additional strategies for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. (+info)