Mumps is an acute infectious disease caused by a paramyxovirus. Although the disease is usually mild, up to 10% of patients can develop aseptic meningitis; a less common but more serious complication is encephalitis, which can result in death or disability. Permanent deafness, orchitis, and pancreatitis are other untoward effects of mumps. Based on data reported to WHO up to April 1998, mumps vaccine is routinely used by national immunization programmes in 82 countries/areas: 23 (92%) of 25 developed countries, 19 (86%) of 22 countries with economies in transition (mainly the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union), and 40 (24%) of 168 developing countries. Countries that have achieved high coverage have shown a rapid decline in mumps morbidity. Furthermore, in many of these countries, mumps-associated encephalitis and deafness have nearly vanished. This review considers the disease burden due to mumps; summarizes studies on the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of different strains of mumps vaccine; and highlights lessons learned about implementing mumps immunization in different countries. Countries already using mumps vaccine should monitor immunization coverage and establish routine mumps surveillance with investigation of outbreaks. Where mumps is targeted for elimination, countries need to add a second dose of mumps vaccine for children, keeping in mind that the disease may still occur in susceptible adults. (+info)
The mumps virus neurovirulence safety test in Rhesus monkeys: a comparison of mumps virus strains.
Wild type mumps viruses are highly neurotropic and a frequent cause of aseptic meningitis in unvaccinated humans. To test whether attenuated mumps viruses used in the manufacture of mumps vaccines have neurovirulent properties, a monkey neurovirulence safety test (MNVT) is performed. However, results with several mumps virus MNVTs have raised questions as to whether the test can reliably discriminate neurovirulent from nonneurovirulent mumps virus strains. Here, various mumps virus strains representing a wide range of neuropathogenicity were tested in a standardized MNVT. A trend of higher neurovirulence scores was observed in monkeys inoculated with wild type mumps virus versus vaccine strains, although differences were not statistically significant. Results indicated the need for further examination and refinement of the MNVT or for development of alternative MNVTs. (+info)
Acute dysautonomia following mumps.
Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported. (+info)
Genetic heterogeneity of mumps virus in the United Kingdom: identification of two new genotypes.
A reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of mumps virus (MuV). Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the entire SH gene sequence (318 nucleotides) and the putative SH protein (57 amino acids). At least 4 MuV genotypes were identified in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 1998 by direct sequencing of 26 PCR amplicons from a variety of specimens. Comparison of these and GenBank sequences identified 2 new genotypes in the United Kingdom. The results suggest that, after the introduction of universal mumps vaccination in the United Kingdom in 1988, there appears to have been a switch from a predominant genotype to a heterogeneous group of strains. (+info)
Decay of passively acquired maternal antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella viruses.
The decay of maternally derived antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses in Swiss infants was studied in order to determine the optimal time for vaccination. A total of 500 serum or plasma samples from infants up to 2 years of age were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent-antibody testing. The decline of antibody prevalence was slowest against the measles virus. By 9 to 12 months of age, only 5 of 58 (8.6%; 95% CI, 2.9 to 19.0) infants were antibody positive for the measles virus, and only 2 had levels above 200 mIU/ml. Mumps and rubella virus antibody seropositivity was lowest at 9 to 12 months of age with 3 of 58 (5. 2%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.4) infants and at 12 to 15 months with 1 of 48 (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 11.1) infants, respectively. Concentrations of passively acquired antibodies decreased rapidly within the first 6 months of life. We observed no significant differences in antibody prevalence or concentration according to gender in any age group. In conclusion, MMR vaccination at 12 instead of 15 months of age could reduce the pool of susceptible subjects in infancy and support the efforts to eliminate these infections, particularly in combination with a second vaccine dose before school entry. (+info)
Infection with wild-type mumps virus in army recruits temporally associated with MMR vaccine.
Four cases of mumps were reported among 180 army recruits who had received MMR vaccine 16 days earlier. Mumps serology, salivary mumps IgM and PCR tests for the SH gene were performed on the 4 cases and on 5 control recruits who remained well. PCR products were sequenced and the sequences compared to those of wild type and vaccine strains of mumps. Further salivary mumps IgM tests were performed on the remaining 171 recruits. Mumps infection was confirmed in the 4 cases but not in the 5 controls. The controls had serological evidence of prior immunity. The SH gene sequence found in the 4 cases was wild type. Saliva tests identified 2 additional recruits with mumps IgM, one of whom had presented with suspected mumps 2 days before the MMR vaccine was given. Thus 6 (5 symptomatic and 1 asymptomatic) cases of mumps in army recruits recently receiving MMR vaccine were not due to the vaccine but to coincidental infection with wild-type mumps virus. The probable index case was revealed by salivary mumps IgM tests. This study highlights the importance of appropriate investigation of illness associated with MMR vaccination. (+info)
Nested PCR for rapid detection of mumps virus in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological diseases.
In this study, we have developed a reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) for the detection of mumps virus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurological infections. A specific 112-bp fragment was amplified by this method with primers from the nucleoprotein of the mumps virus genome. The mumps virus RT-n-PCR was capable of detecting 0.001 PFU/ml and 0.005 50% tissue culture infective dose/ml. This method was found to be specific, since no PCR product was detected in each of the CSF samples from patients with proven non-mumps virus-related meningitis or encephalitis. Mumps virus RNA was detected in all 18 CSF samples confirmed by culture to be infected with mumps virus. Positive PCR results were obtained for the CSF of 26 of 28 patients that were positive for signs of mumps virus infection (i.e., cultivable virus from urine or oropharyngeal samples or positivity for anti-mumps virus immunoglobulin M) but without cultivable virus in their CSF. Overall, mumps virus RNA was detected in CSF of 96% of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) disease and confirmed mumps virus infection, while mumps virus was isolated in CSF of only 39% of the patients. Furthermore, in a retrospective study, we were able to detect mumps virus RNA in 25 of 55 (46%) CSF samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS disease and negative laboratory evidence of viral infection including mumps virus infection. The 25 patients represent 12% of the 236 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS infections and whose CSF was examined at our laboratory for a 2-year period. The findings confirm the importance of mumps virus as a causative agent of CNS infections in countries with low vaccine coverage rates. In summary, our study demonstrates the usefulness of the mumps virus RT-n-PCR for the diagnosis of mumps virus CNS disease and suggests that this assay may soon become the "gold standard" test for the diagnosis of mumps virus CNS infection. (+info)
A secondary school outbreak of mumps following the childhood immunization programme in England and Wales.
Since the introduction of routine measles, mumps and rubella immunization for children in England and Wales in 1988, the incidence of mumps has declined steadily. We describe an outbreak of mumps in 1996 attacking 34 of a cohort of 98 schoolchildren born in 1982 and 1983. This is the largest outbreak in the UK since the introduction of the vaccine into the childhood immunization schedule. Salivary IgM assay was used as a simple, minimally invasive test to confirm the diagnosis. The occurrence of the outbreak demonstrates that British children who were just too old to receive mumps immunization in 1988 continue to be at risk of this disease as a result of diminished natural exposure. Further cases and outbreaks in this cohort are to be expected. Cohorts born before 1982 appear to be at less risk, presumably because of naturally acquired infection before the introduction of immunization. (+info)